Psy 110: Chapter 1

  1. Psychology
    The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
  2. Behavior
    Behavior includes all of our outward or overt actions and reactions, such as talking, facial expressions, and movement.
  3. Psychology's goals:
    Description, explanation, prediction, and control
  4. Mental processes
    Mental processes includes all internal, covert activity of our minds, such as thinking, feeling, remembering, and perceptions.
  5. Science=
  6. Explanations
    Finding explanations for behavior is a very important step in the process of forming theories of behavior.
  7. Prediction
    Determining what will happen in the future.
  8. Aristotle (384-322 BC)
    Wrote about the relationship of the soul to the body (with the two being aspects of the same underlying structure) in De Anima as well as other works.

    Saw them as together
  9. Plato (427-347 BC)
    Disagreed with Aristotle, saw the soul and the body as being connected.

    Aristotle's teacher, felt the soul could exist seperately from the body, a view that has become known as dualism.
  10. The "Father of Psychology"
    Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
  11. Rene Descartes (1600's)
    French philosopher and mathematician, agreed with Plato and believed that the Pineal gland was the seat of the soul.
  12. Pineal Gland
    A small organ at the base of the brain.
  13. Wilhelm Wundt was associated with what
    Objective introspection (the process of objectively examining and measuring one's own thoughts and mental activities.
  14. Structuralism
    focus of this study was the structure of the mind.
  15. Functionalism
    Survival of the fittest
  16. Mary Whiton Calkins
    Completed every course and requirement for earning a Ph.D. but was denied that degree by Harvard because she was a Woman.
  17. Mary Whiton Calkins established a psychological laboratory at Wellesley College. Her work was some of the earliest in the area of...
    • Memory and self
    • (human memory and the psychology of the self)
  18. Freancis Cecil Sumner
    First African-Americans to earn a Ph.D. in psychology at Clark University,
  19. Jorge Sanchez
    Hispanic psychologist, conducted research in the area of intelligence testing, focusing on the cultural biases in such tests.
  20. Max Wertheimer (Germany)
    • Structuralist.
    • Felt that psychological events such as perceiving and sensing could not be broken down into any smaller elements and still be understood.
  21. "The ____ is greater than the ___ of its ___"
    "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts"
  22. Gestalt Psychology
    focusing on perception and sensation, particularly perception of patterns and whole figures.
  23. Sigmund Freud (Austria)
    unconcious mind.

    followed by: Adler, Jung, Erikson, and Anna Freud (his daughter)
  24. Humanistic
    • •Choice
    • •Human Potential
  25. Psychodynamic Perspective
    Modern version of psychoanalysis that is more focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person's behavior than sexual motivations.
  26. Cognitive Perspective
    Modern perspective that focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning.
  27. Socioculteral Perspective
    Perspective that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture.

    Based on society, culture, environment.
  28. Biopsychosocial
    Bio, Psy, Soc
  29. Biopsychological Perspective
    perspective that attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system.
  30. Evolutionary Perspective
    Perspective that focuses on the biological bases of universality mental characteristics that all humans share.
Card Set
Psy 110: Chapter 1
Psychology (Pearson, Prentice Hall) Second Edition