- � Phospholipids bilayer; integral proteins; peripheral proteins,
- cholesterol; glycolipids; glycoproteins
- � Encloses cell contents; facilitates contact between other cells; provides receptors and mediates the entrance and exit of material into and out of the cell
- � Cellular region between the plasma membrane and nucleus; consists of cytosol, dissolved solutes, organelles, and inclusions
- � Provides a medium in which chemical reactions occur
- � Spherical/oval organelle ; surrounded by a nuclear membrane; contains nucleolus, nucleolus, and chromatin; may have one or more nucleoli
- � Direct cell activates and contains heredity material
- � Composed of ribosomal RNA and protein; 2 subunits of unequal size; not membrane bound; free or attached to the RER.
- � Protein synthesis
- � Membranous network of tubular, double membrane channels; may or may not have ribosomes attached.
- � Aids in mechanical support of the cell; storage etc.
- � Stacks of flattened membranous sacs with explained vesicles near or at their ends
- o Packages secreted proteins and lipids
- o Responsible for carbohydrate syntheses and assembles glyco proteins
- � Double membranous bound spherical or rod-like structure; smooth outer membrane with folded inner membrane
- � Energy producer (ATP)
- � Membrane bound spheres; contains digestive enzymes
- � Digests foreign materials and microbes
- � Small membrane bound spheres. Contains catalase.
- � Breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.
- � Small thread-like structures; not membrane bound; part of the cytoskeleton; Actin & myosin.
- � Provides shape and support; assists in cell movement; forms myofilaments in muscle tissues
� Straight; slender cylinders; not membrane bound; part of
- � Supports and shape to cell
- � Helps in cellular conduction; forms flagella
- � Paired cylindrical structures, each composed of nine triplets of microtubules; not membrane bound; located in the centrosome
- � Helps in cellular division
- � Long cytoplasm projection containing microtubules
- � Moves entire cell
- � Short cytoplasm projections containing microtubules. Covered by cell membrane
- � Moves substances along the cell
- � Small finger like projections of the cell membrane on the free surface of the cell. Has a core of microfilaments
- � Increase surface area of contact between 2 cells
- � Various chemical substances contained in the cell. usually produced by the cell Melanin, glycogen and lipids
- o Glycogen
- ? Provides energy or food reserve
- o Melanin
- ? Protects from UV light
- o Lipids
- ? Provide energy and good; protects organs, insulation
= aggregate of similarly specialized cells along with the extracellular material united to perform a particular function
Connective tissue functions are:
Covering and lining the epithelium and glandular epithelium
An amorphous material secreted partly by epithelia cells and connective cells that lie adjacent to each other
Tissue composed of closely packed cells with little to no intercellular substance
What are the two types of epithelium?
�Glandular� & �Covering & lining�
Cells are tightly packed and held together by
General functions of epithelial tissues?
Protection, absorption, secretion, excretion
One layer of cells
Two or more layers of cells
Pseudostratified (looks like)
All cells touch the BL but only some cells reach the free surface
Cuboidal (looks like)
As tall as it is wide
Columnar (looks like)
Taller then it is wide
Transitional (looks like)
Shape changes as organ stretches or releases
Simple squamous epithelium e.g.
Boumans capsule (kidney), Alveoli (Lung), endothelium (blood vessels)
Function of simple squamous epithelium
Filtration, diffusion secretion
Simple cuboidal epithelium e.g.
Renal tubules, ducts of small glands�
Function of simple cuboidal epithelium
Secretion & absorption
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium with cilia (looks like)
All the cells touch the BL but they do not all reach the free surface; cells at the free surface are taller then wide an they have cilia
Stratified squamous epithelium (looks like)
Many layers of cells; cells at the free surface are flat
Stratified squamous epithelium e.g.
Epidermis of skin (keratinized (cells at free surface lack a nucleus), lines mouth, esophagus (nonkeratinized (cells at FS with nuclei).
Function of stratified squamous epithelium
Stratified cuboidal epithelium (looks like)
Many layers of cells; cells are the free surface are as tall as they are wide
Stratified cuboidal epithelium.
Usually 2 rows, ducts of sweat glands
Stratified cuboidal epithelium function
Stratified columnar epithelium looks like
Many layers of cells; cells at the free surface are taller then wide
Stratified transitional epithelium looks like
Many layers of cells; cells are the free surface change their shape (when organism is relaxed, cells at the free surface have a dome shape.
Cells are specialized for secretion; cells are closely packed and appear to be similar in structure; a free surface is difficult to see
Embryonic tissue; lost of star shaped cells scattered thought out the matrix
Lose (areolar) connective tissue
Lots of cells (fibroblasts, mast cells..)Randomly arranged within the matrix
White adipose tissue
Lots of ball shaped cells; not much matrix visible
Reticular connective tissue
Network of highly branching think fibers in a gel like substance; cells (reticular cells) cannot be seen with the special stain; fibbers often stain black
Dense regular connective tissue
Abundance of collagen fibers arranged in parallel; few cells are arranged in rows between fibers; ground substance is hard to see
Elastic connective tissue
Abundance of elastic fibers usually arranged in parallel; fibers usually stain black with a special stain; few cells and collagen fibers are present; ground substance is hard to see
Dense irregular connective tissue
Abundance of collagen fivers arranged in many directions few cells are scattered thought out the matrix; ground substance is hard to see
Cells occupy lacunae; abundance of ground substance; collage fivers are present but not readily visible
Cells occupy lacunae; abundance of ground substance; collagen fibers present but not readily visible; elastic fibers are present
Cells occupy lacunae; abundance of ground substance; bundles of collagenfivers arranged in herring bond patern; fibers visible; cells in rows between the fiber bundles
Cells occupy lacunae; abundance of calcified matrix; distinct arrangement of components in compact bone
Cells with nuclei (white) and witout nuclei (red and platelets) suspended in fluic matrix