ESR 172

  1. Ecological Island
    A comparatively small habitat separated from a major habitat of the same kind.
  2. Theory of Island Biogeography
    • - The smaller the island, the fewer species
    • - The farther away the island is from a continent(mainland) the fewer species it will have
  3. Edge Effect
    Physical and biological changes that occur along the transition between two habitat types.

    - Effects survivability of species: temperature difference, exposure to light, etc.
  4. Harvest Patterns
    Staggered setting- checkerboard (more edge!!)

    Minimal- Block (less edge!!)
  5. Habitat Corridors
    Allows migration between parks or preserves- insurance against catastrophe
  6. Steps of scientific method
    • 1. Make observations- develop a question
    • 2. Develop a tentative answer to the question- hypothesis
    • 3. Design a controlled experiment to test the hypothesis
    • 4. Collect data
    • 5. Interpret data through graphs or other means
    • 6. Draw a conclusion from the data
    • 7. Compare conclusion with hypothesis- support or disprove
  7. Independent variable
    Manipulated by scientist
  8. Dependent variable
    Responding variable- depends on independent variable
  9. Control
    Exact duplicate of experiment without independent variable
  10. Hypothesis
    A tentative answer to a question that can be tested and capable of being disproved.
  11. Theory
    Grand scheme that relates and explains many observations and is supported by a great deal of evidence
  12. Prediction
    Like when you predict something is going to happen- it's like a guess mofo, like a guess
  13. Point source pollution
    Pipeline discharge into water (Factories releasing shit into water from a pipe)
  14. Area source
    runoff from land into water (car wash)
  15. Pollution
    • Occurrence of an unwanted change in the environment
    • -caused by introduction of unwanted materials
    • -production of harmful conditions (heat, sound, etc.)
  16. Toxic
    Materials(pollutants) that are poisonous to people and other living things
  17. Mercury
    • Burning coal in power plants
    • Cement kilns
    • Compact fluorescent bulbs
    • Mercury mines
  18. Lead
    • Old paint
    • Old plumbing systems (lead pipes)
    • “Leaded” gasoline
  19. Biomagnifications
    the accumulation or increase in concentration of a substance in living tissue as it moves through a food web.
  20. Hormonally Active Agents
    Substances that act like hormones\

    Example- Phthalates
  21. Persistent Organic Pollutants
    Synthetic organic compounds often containing chlorine, that do not easily break down in the environment.

    Example- DDT
  22. Thermal Pollution
    Heat pollution- Occurs when heat released into water or air produces undesirable effects
  23. Noise Pollution
    • Unwanted sound-
    • - Above 80dB potentially dangerous for humans
    • -110dB's damage can occur
    • - Above 140 dB cause pain
  24. Kinetic energy
    Energy of motion (water flowing over a dam, a wheel rolling down a hill)
  25. Potential energy
    Stored energy (a car battery, a stretched rubber-band)
  26. Thermal Energy
    Random motion of atoms and molecules- fire, boiling water
  27. Radiant Energy
    Energy of electromagnetic waves

    Example- Radio waves, x rays
  28. Chemical energy
    energy produced through reactions that occur in chemical compounds

    Example- Match, fuels such as gas
  29. High quality energy
    Easier to do work, more work can be done- cause more change
  30. Lower quality energy
    Harder to do work, less work done
  31. First law of Thermodynamics
    Energy cannot be created or destroyed- Energy can be converted from one form to another
  32. Second law of Thermodynamics
    Energy goes from a higher quality form to a lower quality form
  33. First Law energy efficiency
    (Energy delivered/energy supplied) * 100%
  34. Second Law Energy efficiency
    The ratio of the minimum amount of work or energy required to perform a task to the amount actually used.
  35. Energy conservation
    Getting by with less demand for energy.
  36. Energy efficiency
    Yield more energy output from a given amount of input energy
  37. Cogeneration
    Capture and use waste heat
Card Set
ESR 172
ESR 172