1. What is the MAC value

    What is it defined as?
    It is a measure of inhalational anesthetic potency.

    It is defined as the minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration at which 50% of patients do not respond to a surgical stimulus.

    MAC values are additive
  2. Nitrous Oxide
    • Safest inhalational anesthetic
    • Weak but a good Analgesic
    • No toxic effect
  3. What is NO used for?

    What should you be cauions of ?
    • Dental procedures
    • Raplidly eliminated

    Hypoxia and Megaloblastic anemia
  4. Halothane

    What are some side effects that can occur.
    • Potent anesthetic
    • It sensitizes the heart to catecholamines
    • Dilates Bronchus
    • Hepatitis and malignant hyperthermia
  5. What is a side of halogenated anesthetics?

    What is the treatment?
    Malignant Hyperthermia

    Dantrolene: a muscle relaxant that acts by abolishing excitation-contraction coupling in muscle cells
  6. Enflurane

    What is it contraindicated in?
    What should you be cautious of?
    Do not sensitizes the heart to catecholamines

    Seizures occurs at deeper levels (so it is contraindicated in epileptics).

    Renal failure due to fluoride.
  7. Isoflurane
    Used with Oxygen or Nitrous oxide

    Do not sensitize the heart to catecholamines

    Can irritate the respiratory system.
  8. Desflurane
    • -popular anesthetic for day care surgery
    • -recovery is fast

    -irritates the air passages producing cough and laryngospasm.
  9. Sevoflurane

    What is a concern?
    -recovery is fast

    -pleasant and acceptable due to lack of pungency

    • -Do not cause air way irritancy.
    • -Concerns about nephrotoxicity
  10. What is the toxicity of:
    Nitrous oxide?
    Arrhythmia, Hepatitis, Hyperthermia

    Seizures, hyperthermia

    Widely used



  11. What are the uses of IV.

    What are included in this group?
    Used for INduction of anesthesia

    • Rapid onset of action
    • Recovery is mainly by redistribution

    -thiopental, midazolam propofol, etomidate, ketamine
  12. What are the main drugs used to treat Status Eplilepicus?
    Benzodiazapine> Phenytoin> Barbituates
  13. Thiopental

    What is it?
    - It is an ultra short acting Barbiturate.

    Consciousness regained within 10-20 mins by redistribution to skeletal muscle.

    Does not increase the ICT

    Eliminated slowly from the body by metabolism and produce hang over.

    It can be used for rapid control of seizures.
  14. Propofol
    commonly used IV anesthetic for both induction and maintenance.

    Recovery is rapid and clearer than thiopenthal.

    Anti-emetic in action.

    Suited for day care surgery
  15. Propofol

    What does it not do?How do you fix this?
    What is a common side effect?
    Is not an Analgesic, so give Opioids with it to alleviate pain

    -Pain on injection. Mild myoclonic movements are common
  16. What is Etomidate?

    What is its only advantage?
    • Short acting Anesthetic
    • decrease the production of steroids from the adrenal gland.

    • -Is a Pro-convulsant and emetic.
    • -CVS stability
  17. What is Ketamine?

    Dissociative anesthesia (soul from body)

    -Profound analgesia, cataleptic state, immobility, amnesia with light sleep.

    • - Increased HR and BP due to increased Sympathetics
    • -Patients respond to commands and their eyes are open.
  18. What is Ketamine useful in?

    What are some side effects?
    What is a danger of this drug?
    Burn Dressing and Trauma surgery

    Emergence delirium, hallucinations and involuntary movements occur in 50% of cases.

    - Dangerous Hypertension
  19. What is Fentanyl?
    What is it used for?
    What drugs can be given to prevent its toxiciy?
    • -It is an opioid.
    • -It is the DOC for Open heart surgery due to lack of cardiac depression.

    - Antagonists Nalmefene and Naloxone reverse an overdose.

  20. What is the One disadvantage of Opioids?
    Can cause respiratory Depression.
  21. Benzodiazepines

    What are they used for?
    What are some drugs that can reverse its overdose?

    What is Midazolam?
    • DOC for controlling and preventing Seizures.
    • -Used for induction and short procedures.
    • -Flumazenil can reverse its overdose.

    -Has the Fastest onset of action, greatest potency and fastest elimination.
  22. What are Neuroleptanalgesia?
    What do they cause?
    When is it used?

    What is Innovar?
    • Causes psychic indifference and intense analgesia without total loss of consciousness
    • -decreased motor functions, suppressed autonomic reflexes, cardiovascular stability with mild amnesia. Drowsy but respond to commands.
    • - Used in minor opertions

    -It is a combination of Fentanyl and Droperidol.
  23. What is Ketamine good for?
    Analgesia (and Hallucinations)

    Muscle relaxation (and amnesia)

    Analgesia ( and respiratiory depression)
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