Why study nutrition?
to prevent killer diseases in later life
Name the 3 major killer diseases caused by diet.
- Heart disease
- Diabetes Mellitus
(in that order)
- State hypothesis
- Accept or reject HO
- If accept-publish in professional journal
- Peer review
- Others replicate
- made into principle/theory
Science ,ust be
Is it preferable to accept your HO?
- Large world view
- Change of fundemental thinking
What are the most powerful studies?
- Controlled studies
- (contro/crossover/double blind)
What type of research (especially with humans) is the gold standard?
Double blind experiment
Experimantal group receives?
- Actual variable being tested.
What does the term blind mean in an experiment?
The subject does not know if they are receiving the drug or not.
When you switch who is the exprimental group and the control group in the middle of the testing.
How can you get cause-n-effect data?
Controlled, double blind, crossover experiment.
- associations between or among several variables
- Only prove that variables are associated
- NOT CAUSE-N-EFFECT
Look at populatins with similar traits to investigate possible associations between health and disease.
(cancer and hear disease with diet, lifestyle, genetics, etc..)
data applies to populations only, NOT individuals.
Cohort/ cohort studies
Large groups of patients that have common experiences
Animal human in vitro studies
studies done on cells, tissues, organs, and the whole animals outside the living creatures.
Animal in vivo studies
doing research on living animals like rats, chimps, and mice
- CANNOT DIRECTLY APPLY TO HUMANS
- (chimps can't get aids)
Problems with studies
- Serious ethical issues
- Can't control people
- Correlational data
Human genome project
- attempt to decode DNA
- Genes code for protein; proteinomics
What will affect healthcare in the future
foods that naturally provide benefits beyond their normal nutritional value
Usually plant based chemicals added to food to give it healthful traits.
When did the govt find out that malnutrition has long term effects?
What did they establish?
RDA's- recommended daily allowances.
When were RDAs revised?
Every 5 years
add more of an already present nutrient (iron)
- Adding something new to a food
- (calcium to orange juice)
4 food groups
- Meat, fish, eggs, nuts, beans
- Fruits and Veg
AHA found that diet high in fat increases the risk of heart disease.
diet is now believed to be linked to 10-35% of all cancers
- 4 food groups replaced by food pyramid
- RDAs replaced by daily values.
When did the nutrition labeling act come into fruition?
1990- law requiring new food labels to put more stingent health claims on them.
body consistently gets enough nutrients for metabolic function and has a SURPLUS
nutritional needs not CONSISTENTLY met
CONSISTENTLY taking in more of some nutrients than the body needs
Must have oxygen to break down glucose.
foods that run cell respiration
55-60% of total cals should be from carbs
Lipids 9 Kcals/gram
less than 30% of toal
less than 30% of total
.8g for every kg of body weight or 10% of total
americans should consume how many Kcals per day?
key suggestions for americans
- balance Kcals consumed to expended
- eat in moderation
- eat a variety
Positives of guidelines
- Controlling weight
- separate good from bad fats
- complex carbs are being replaced by whole carbs.
Negatives of guidelines
- protein lumped together
- advice to consume dairy is wrong!
What are the new nutritional guidelens called?
Dietary reference intakes
They are gender and age specific
the nutrient intake that i s estimated to meet the needs of 50% of the individuals,
nutrient intake that is sufficient to meet the needs of 97% of the individuals in the age and gender group.
AI (adequate intakes)
used for nutrients for which there is not enough info to set an ear
Tolerable upper intake levels (Uls)
levels above this number will likely be toxic to the majority of people.
DRI are set for ______not _______
other food pyramids
- mediterranian- fat from olive/canola oil
- native american- corn, squash, tom., fish
All experts agree
- Eat a variety of food
- eat all food in moderation
smoothe muscle contraction
what is the mucosa of the epithelium lined with?
what starts to break down in the mouth?
carbs by the enzyme amalase
what does saliva do/
- lowers pH
- moistens food
- enzyme amalase start s breaking down carbs
trachea is covered by what to keep the food out?
food in clumps
- kills bacteria by lower pH
- absobs alcohol
- chyme forms from bolus
What is the site of almost all absorption
how much food does the body absorb
largest organ besides the skin
Where does the digestion of lipids and protein begin?
stores excess bile made by the liver; used inn digestion of fats.
- endocrine- insulin
- exocrine- digestive functions
insulin comes from _____cells
What is the backup to glucagon?
HGH and cortisol
3 factors vital for normal bowel movements?