Beau MGCCC nutrition

  1. Why study nutrition?
    to prevent killer diseases in later life
  2. Name the 3 major killer diseases caused by diet.
    • Heart disease
    • Cancer
    • Diabetes Mellitus

    (in that order)
  3. Scientific method
    • Observe
    • State hypothesis
    • Analyze
    • Accept or reject HO
    • If accept-publish in professional journal
    • Peer review
    • Others replicate
    • made into principle/theory
  4. Science ,ust be
    • measurable
    • quantifiable
    • repeatable
    • objective
  5. Is it preferable to accept your HO?
  6. Paradigm
    • Large world view
    • Change of fundemental thinking
  7. What are the most powerful studies?
    • Controlled studies
    • (contro/crossover/double blind)
  8. What type of research (especially with humans) is the gold standard?
    Double blind experiment
  9. Placebo
    fake variable
  10. Experimantal group receives?
    • Actual variable being tested.
    • Placebo
  11. What does the term blind mean in an experiment?
    The subject does not know if they are receiving the drug or not.
  12. Crossover design.
    When you switch who is the exprimental group and the control group in the middle of the testing.
  13. How can you get cause-n-effect data?
    Controlled, double blind, crossover experiment.
  14. Correlational research
    • associations between or among several variables
    • Only prove that variables are associated
  15. Epidemological studies
    Look at populatins with similar traits to investigate possible associations between health and disease.

    (cancer and hear disease with diet, lifestyle, genetics, etc..)

    data applies to populations only, NOT individuals.
  16. Cohort/ cohort studies
    Large groups of patients that have common experiences
  17. Animal human in vitro studies
    studies done on cells, tissues, organs, and the whole animals outside the living creatures.
  18. Animal in vivo studies
    doing research on living animals like rats, chimps, and mice

    • (chimps can't get aids)
  19. Problems with studies
    • Serious ethical issues
    • Can't control people
    • Correlational data
  20. Human genome project
    • attempt to decode DNA
    • Genes code for protein; proteinomics
  21. What will affect healthcare in the future
    Nutritional genomics
  22. Functional foods
    foods that naturally provide benefits beyond their normal nutritional value
  23. Phytochemicals
    Usually plant based chemicals added to food to give it healthful traits.
  24. When did the govt find out that malnutrition has long term effects?

    What did they establish?

    RDA's- recommended daily allowances.
  25. When were RDAs revised?
    Every 5 years
  26. Enriched
    add more of an already present nutrient (iron)
  27. Fortified
    • Adding something new to a food
    • (calcium to orange juice)
  28. 1950s
    4 food groups

    • Dairy
    • Meat, fish, eggs, nuts, beans
    • Fruits and Veg
    • Grains
  29. 1960s
    AHA found that diet high in fat increases the risk of heart disease.
  30. 1980s
    diet is now believed to be linked to 10-35% of all cancers
  31. 1990s
    • 4 food groups replaced by food pyramid
    • RDAs replaced by daily values.
  32. When did the nutrition labeling act come into fruition?
    1990- law requiring new food labels to put more stingent health claims on them.
  33. Well nourished
    body consistently gets enough nutrients for metabolic function and has a SURPLUS
  34. Malnourished
    nutritional needs not CONSISTENTLY met
  35. Over nutrition
    CONSISTENTLY taking in more of some nutrients than the body needs
  36. Aerobic
    with oxygen

    Must have oxygen to break down glucose.
  37. Nutrients
    foods that run cell respiration
  38. Carbs
    4 Kcals/gram

    55-60% of total cals should be from carbs
  39. Lipids 9 Kcals/gram

    less than 30% of toal
    9 Kcals/gram

    less than 30% of total
  40. Proteins
    4 Kcals/gram

    .8g for every kg of body weight or 10% of total
  41. americans should consume how many Kcals per day?
  42. key suggestions for americans
    • balance Kcals consumed to expended
    • eat in moderation
    • eat a variety
  43. Positives of guidelines
    • Controlling weight
    • separate good from bad fats
    • complex carbs are being replaced by whole carbs.
  44. Negatives of guidelines
    • protein lumped together
    • advice to consume dairy is wrong!
  45. What are the new nutritional guidelens called?
    Dietary reference intakes

    They are gender and age specific
  46. EAR
    the nutrient intake that i s estimated to meet the needs of 50% of the individuals,
  47. RDA
    nutrient intake that is sufficient to meet the needs of 97% of the individuals in the age and gender group.
  48. AI (adequate intakes)
    used for nutrients for which there is not enough info to set an ear
  49. Tolerable upper intake levels (Uls)
    levels above this number will likely be toxic to the majority of people.
  50. DRI are set for ______not _______
    • population
    • people
  51. other food pyramids
    • mediterranian- fat from olive/canola oil
    • native american- corn, squash, tom., fish
  52. All experts agree
    • Eat a variety of food
    • eat all food in moderation
  53. Peristalsis
    smoothe muscle contraction
  54. what is the mucosa of the epithelium lined with?
    goblet cells
  55. what starts to break down in the mouth?
    carbs by the enzyme amalase
  56. what does saliva do/
    • lowers pH
    • moistens food
    • enzyme amalase start s breaking down carbs
  57. Pharynx
  58. trachea is covered by what to keep the food out?
  59. food in clumps
    food liquified
    • bolus
    • chyme
  60. Stomach does?
    • kills bacteria by lower pH
    • absobs alcohol
    • chyme forms from bolus
  61. What is the site of almost all absorption
    Small intestine
  62. how much food does the body absorb
  63. Liver
    largest organ besides the skin
  64. Where does the digestion of lipids and protein begin?
  65. gall bladder
    stores excess bile made by the liver; used inn digestion of fats.
  66. pancreas
    • endocrine- insulin
    • exocrine- digestive functions
  67. insulin comes from _____cells
  68. What is the backup to glucagon?
    HGH and cortisol
  69. 3 factors vital for normal bowel movements?
    • fiber
    • water
    • exercise
Card Set
Beau MGCCC nutrition
Exam 1 nutrition