Palatine Chapel, Aachen, Germany, 800
- Christian monuments as sources/Roman influence/St. Peter’s
- Octagonal in center, 16 sided exterior w a highly verticalized center
- Much more subdivided (groin vaulting splitting) than San Vitale (deco)
- Atrium – enter with opposite across from King’s audience hall
- 2 levels – 1st for average ppl, 2nd for Charlemagne + court
- Vs. Vitale: V directly flows from central space, unity and back drop continuity, spatial containment is imprecise (unlike precise PC), made by Byz (PC decorated by Byz), triple column vaulting sys, classical (PC is single plane, not classical)
- Vertical volume accented (diff in earlier Christ. Monuments)
- Development of westwork
Ideal Monastery of St. Gall, Switzerland, 800
- Carolingian scheme: double apse and compartmentalized volumes
- Reveals the social hierarchy of the monastery: relig. And comm. Functions with support facilities
- Not just a relig. building but also a town
- Cloister is only for monks. Monks and farmers (society) come together in Monastery
- Idea that religion structures your daily routine
- Simple spaces
- Church with basilica volume (stone) + crucifix shape, west symbolic entrance
- Subdivided space b/c highly structured life/control
Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, Israel, 700
- Built by Caliph Abd al-Malik, the dome was located on a site sacred to Jews, Christians and Muslims-- to place Islam in relation to those other religions
- a symbolic marking, not a place for prayer
- ---exterior: richly deco in maosaic tile, octagonal exterior walls with octagonal arcade and circular inner ambulatory
- built up to the center, space not to occupy but be at corners
- The rock of the Sakrah, the place from which Mohammed was to have made his journey to heaven, is located in the center.
- Vs. Palatine Chapal (superficially the same)
- ---Geometry and form of design is at much higher level than western culture
- ---Singular accesss at both levels (hor/vert)
- ---While dome of the rock is 4 (square-angled square-circle) and more subtle, progression of mov. of earth (square/octagon) to heaven (circle/dome). Transcendant
- ---Both Byz craftsmen – banded arches, mosaic work, use of marble, pillaging of classical columns. But D. of Rock more complex color/patterns
Great Mosque, Damascus, Syria, 700
- precedent Romanesque basilica - squ perimeter
- courtyard civic space - transition of world outside to mosque, sacred space
- minarets (prayer towers) began here
- courtyard w symbolic treasury (octagonal bldg) wealth -> main prayer hall: hypostyle hall w a central axis reserved for relig and secular leadership
- 2 tiered columns b/c pillaged
- mihrab, minbar, qiblah
Great Mosque, Cordoba, Spain, 900
- The mosque is organized as a large walled religious compound, the courtyard containing a grove of organge trees. The complex was built up in stages over two centuries Main entrance gate on axis with mihrab, through courtyard to large hypostyle hall – strong directional quality
- Horse shoe arch in interior + exterior décor.
- The combination of complex geometries and decorative surface patterning transforms the stone facades into a thin almost transparent fabric – like Gothic details with color and exact cuts
- The prayer space was constructed using two-tiered arches
- Rather than merely a niche in the qibla wall, the mihrab is a small domed volume
Ste. Foy, Conques, France, 1100
- Built on top of Carolingian church, basilica, and a town built around it
- West front of church, east is highly dev in terms of massing. Early example of Roman Church for pilgrimmage.
- Westwork with a tymphanum (carving decoration of a tale-last judgement)
- Series of chapels, cruxifix, can walk continusouly around, individuality of chapels expressed in exterior (lacks unity of basilica church-separate more important)
- Ideal Monastery of St. Gall - plain apse w less of destination target b/c for monks
- Continuous ambulatory, 2 level nave (important in Romanesque)
- Central space hgiher brings more light and creation of galleries + articulated vertical structure - layered wall struct.
Ste. Madeline, Vezelay, France, 1100
- Byzantine influence: arches with groin vaults, color alternating
- Importance of structural expression that leads to gothic Arch.
- Plan shows scheme of pilgrimage churches--continuous aisles leading to radiating chapels at the ambulatory--although in this case the transepts are almost completely supressed.
- Two-storey nave wall covered with cross-vaulted roof. Nave wall with clerestory over the aisle is articulated by overlay of monumental half-columns over pilasters over the wall surface.Development of cluster piers creating a series of surfaces
- 3 arched entrance w a tympanum - mission of the Apostles (more optimistic than Last Judgement)
S. Ambrogio, Milan, Italy, 1100
- Towers construction at different times shows its a civic center
- Cloister space is a place of transition of worship + PUBLIC (influence of east, not like France)
- Compared w basilicas - not flat roofed here,
- early ex of rib vaulting - alternating bays
- VS. old St. Peter's, 323
- ---plan is almost identical but no transept of SA, no radiating chapel at east
- ---flat roof vs. differentiated volume, expressive, rythmic vaulting + columns
- VS. French Romanesque
- ---Similar: west front begins to dev like a facade
- ---Difference: width and height are cubic volume, not 2 to 1 nave space but 1 to 1, not high ceilings, not pure vaulting system
Baptistery of S. Giovanni, Florence, Italy, 1100
- Octagonal centralized structure, references Roman precedent like the Pantheon.
- The exterior treatment follows the Tuscan tradition of polychrome marble, uses classical elements and abstract geometric compositions; marble!
- Section shows a double shell construction of the octagonal wall of the baptistery. The dome, like the overall form of the building is in eight segments.
- Baptist is held at center of the city
S. M. Maggiore (Pisa Cathedral), Pisa, Italy, 1100
- Exterior of polychrome stone and marble, the facade combining blind arcading with arcaded galleries. The scale and delicacy of the exterior resembles that of Byzantine and Islamic decoration.
- Derived from the basilica tradition, but with each transept being a separate basilica. The pointed arches and eliptical dome at the crossing suggests an Islamic or Byzantine source.
- The three-storey nave wall has a double aisle with gallery and clerestory over and a coffered ceiling. The wall uses alternating colors of stone to create a
- horizontal pattern.
- The double aisle creates a horizontal transparency that visually connects the aisles to the central space of the nave.
- Crispness but light like Islamic
- VS. Ste Madeline, Vezelay
- ---Byz detail but SMM is Roman but Byz. influence, French Romanesque but SMM is Italian Romaneswue, and marble (same)
Durham Cathedral, Durham, England, begun 1100
- The church has a Latin cross plan like the French Romanesque. The nave has a "thick wall" construction and uses relieving arches (pre to Gothic structure)
- Three part elevation of the nave wall has aisles with gallery and clerestory over. The building also uses an alternating bay system.
- The nave wall is articulated in multiple layers that express the structure of the wall. The massive piers and columns are marked with geometric patterns that derive from English decorative traditions.
- The church has a four part rib vaulting system (pre to Gothic)
- No continuous aisle for pilgrimage, French w English monastic Arch design, pointed arch rib vaulting system (7 part vaulting)
- Wall dev. -stepped flat plan that thins down
- VS S. Ambrogio, Milan
- ---domed up towards center vaulting system (same)
- ---more squat and cubic
- "Gothic arch in England"
Abbey of Cluny III, France, 1100
- French R. arch in terms of scale arrangement and vaulting system
- Early Romanesque Basilica
- Church preceded by atrium in a manner similar to Old St. Peter's Basilica, with one of the earliest examples of a barrel vaulted nave during the Romanesque.
- monumentally scaled church: 5 aisles, 6 towers and 5 radiating chapels at the choir
- complex is dev into exclusively for monks, lacks social interaction -> no longer model for society
- 7 towers vs. Ste. Foy (3 towers)
- vs Ideal Monastery of St. Gall - just 300 years, short -> tall (monastic)
The Abbey of St. Denis, St. Denis, France, facade, 1150, choir, 1150
- Abbot Suger directed the transformation of the west front and choir of the 9th c. abbey. It became the symbol of the new monarcy
- West front: 3 part facade, 3 doors, 2 towers = central portal = "door to heaven", level of stonework is more elaborate than Romanesque's Tympanum
- Pointed Narthex vault - ribs were constructed first and then vault patterns
- Apse:1,2,3 raidus (#7 is symbolic geo in Christianity)
- Stained glass creating a dark lighting through layers of glass
Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris, France, 1150
- The construction of Notre Dame in the heart of Paris reflects a rise of urban and intellectual culture in France.
- West front employs twin bell towers, central rose window and 3 elaborate entrance portals a central aisle flanked by double arcades leading to a double ambulatory.
- !4 part nave elevation with arcade, gallery, triforium and clerestory
- barely a transcept, heavy columns inserted into the nave wall
- !first of flying buttress system - very experiemental
- !Individual craftsmenship with gargoyle decorations
- 6 part vaulting system like Romanesque
- cluster colonnettes + St. Denis's vaulting patern