1. Blood pumped into the pulmonary artery is still _______ blood.
  2. Bicusped or mitral valve is located where?
    between the left atrium and laft ventricle
  3. The tricusped valve is located where?
    between the right atrium and right ventricle
  4. Sinoatrial Node (S-A node) is located where?
    posterior wall of the right atrium
  5. Note: The S-A node initiates the heartbeat without outside stimulation.
    The impulse passes along fibers to A-V Node
  6. Atrioventricular Node (A-V Node) is located where?
    Floor of the right atrium
  7. Note: A-V Node impulse passes into group of fibers called bundle of His
    • bundle of His conducts impulses from atria to ventricle
    • terminates in Purkinje fibers
  8. Vegas nerve _____ the heart during rest and sleep and also transmits ________ which causes __________.
    • slows the heart
    • acetycholine, slowdown
  9. The vegas nerve is known as a cardio-_______.
  10. Nerves of the _________ portion of the autonomic nervous system are cardiac-_________>
    • sympathetic
    • accelerators
  11. The sympathetic autonomic nervous system releases ______ which is a cardio-accelerator.
  12. What type of line measures pressure of blood in the right atrium that is inserted via the jugular or subclavian to distal SVC?
    Central venous pressure (CVP) line
  13. What type of catheter permits monitoring of CVP (placed in right atrium or SVC) that has a proximal lumen port that is used for administration of drugs and fluid?
    Swans-ganz catheter
  14. Type of catheter? Soft flow directed catheter with balloon at the tip for measuring: pulmonary arteriole pressure, arterial pressure, right atrial pressures (CVP), left atrial pressures, reflected left ventricular end diastolic pressure?
    Swans-Ganz catheter
  15. Note: Swans-Ganz catheter is introduced into the basilic or subclavian vein, to the SVC, to the right atrium, to the right ventricle, to the right pulmonary artery.
    Can also be placed into the femoral vein to IVC if they cannot go another route
  16. The _____ ventricle is not well visualized in a PA chest projection.
  17. Define dextrocardia.
    The heart is in the right side of the chest with the apex pointing to the right. *Just the heart*
  18. Define situs inversus
    • Transposition of organs to the opposite side of the body.
    • Will notice the fundus of the stomach on the right side of the body.
  19. For a normal adult heart size, the transverse diameter of the heart shadow should be _____________________ of the transverse diameter of thorax inside the rib cage.
    • less than 1/2.
    • If it is more than 1/2, it is cardiomegaly
  20. Heart size can not be accurately estimated on AP supine CXR because?
    • diaphragm moves up
    • heart is further away from film-magnified
    • less than 72" SID (40-48)
  21. What is introduced directly into one of the chambers of the heart or pulmonary artery that records hemodynamic and physiologic information?
    Cardiac catherterization
  22. Note: Left cardiac cath- arteriole access. Use pigtail catheter (non-tramic shape) for left ventricle. Pushes through aortic semilunar valve and into left ventricle (dysrhythmia common)
    • Contrast is injected, films taken, pressure measurements taken across aortic valve and left ventricle (should be same).
    • If aortic pressure is low-stenosis of valve.
  23. Cardiac catheterization (arteriole access) is used to diagnosis _______, _________, ______ of the _____heart.
    • stenosis
    • occlusions of vessels on the left side of the heart
    • congenital abnormalities
    • left
  24. Right cardiac catheterization (venous access). Line into ________ (_____-alternate) to the IVC, to right atrium, to right ventricle, to _______.
    • femoral vein, alternate basilic
    • pulmonary artery
  25. Right Cardiac Catherterization path? (normal)
    Femoral vein-IVC-right atrium-right ventricle-pulmonary artery
  26. Type of catheter preferred for right cardiac catheterization?
  27. Information obtained with a right cardiac cath?
    • chamber pressure
    • condition of heart wall
    • O2 levels
    • cardiac volume
    • overall function
  28. Pathway of coronary angiography?
    femoral artery to root of aorta where coronary arteries connect
  29. Power inject or manually inject contrast in coronary angiography? Why?
    manual, less dysrhythmias
  30. PTCA- percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. What is it?
    A catheter is placed into the coronary vessel, a ballon is inflated to open stenotic vessels. (Pushes the buildup against the vessel wall)
  31. DCA- directional coronary atherectomy. What is it?
    Catheter is placed into stenotic coronary vessel, a cutting device is attached to the ballon that is inflated.
  32. PTCRA-percutaneous transluminal coronary rotational ablation. What is it?
    Rotoblade removes plaque
  33. TEC-transluminal extraction
    Cutting device shaves plaque and vacuum extracts the debris
  34. Note: Echo stress test: Pt walks on treadmill or rides bike, or may be given drug that stresses the heart.
    Heart readings are taken using echo transducer that produce image.
  35. Fetal Circulation: Umbilical vein carries blood with oxygen adn nutrients from placenta to fetus, opens into ductus venosis.
    Ductus venosis conducts about 1/2 the blood from umbilical vein to IVC bypassing the fetal liver.
  36. Foramen ovale? Purpose?
    • opeing between right and left artium of the heart in the fetus.
    • Allows blood to bypass the lungs
  37. Ductus arteriosus? Purpose?
    • Vessel in the fetus that connects the pulmonary artery with aorta.
    • bypass nonfunctioning lungs
  38. Umbilical arteries, how many and what is their function?
    paired arteries, carry blood (CO2, waste) from internal iliac arteries to placenta for reoxygenation
  39. Umbilical vein becomes completely closed by ________-____ day after birth and degenerates into the ___________ of the liver.
    • 2-5
    • ligimentum teres
  40. Ductus venosis closes by the ____-____ day after birth and degenerates into the _______ of the liver.
    • 2-5
    • ligimentum venosum
  41. Foramen ovale closes by about the _____ day after birth. If it fails to close it causes "late" _______.
    • 10th day
    • cyanosis
  42. Ductus arteriosis completely closes by the ____-____ day after birth, degenerates into the ______________. If it fails to close it will cause ________.
    • 4-10th
    • ligimentum arteriosum
    • cyanosis
  43. Congenital heart anomalies occur in ____-____ babbies per 1000 live births in the US.
  44. ASD- Atrial septal defect. What happens?
    Foramen ovale in atrial septum fails to close, left to right shunting.
  45. Any right to left atrial shunting causes?
  46. ASD may have the radiographic appearance of?
    increased pulmonary artery size
  47. VSD-ventricular septal defect. What causes it?
    Hole between the ventricles. Left to right shunting.
  48. Radiographic appearance of VSD?
    Increased left artial and ventricular size as well as increased pulmonary size.
  49. What are teh four defects of Tetralogy of Fallot?
    • Pulmonary stenosis
    • Hypertrophy of right ventricle
    • VSD
    • Displacement of Aorta (blood enters aorta from both ventricles)
  50. What is the radiographic appearance of tetralogy of Fallot?
    A boot shaped heart due to hypertrophy of right ventricle.
  51. PDA-patent ductus arteriosus?
    Failure of ductus arteriosus to close. Blood flows from aorta to pulmonary artery
  52. Coarctation of Aorta?
    narrowing or stricture of aorta usually distal to subclavian with dilation of aortic arch proximal to coarctation.
  53. What pathology caused increased pulse in arms and decreased pulse in legs?
    Coarctation of the aorta
  54. CAD- coronary artery disease?
    narrowing of coronary arteries around the heart
  55. Predesposing factors of CAD?
    • hypertension
    • obesity
    • smoking
    • diabetes
    • high cholesterol
    • lack of exercise
  56. Agina pectoris?
    acute chest pain
  57. Nitroglycerin causes?
    dilation of coronary arteries
  58. Acute ischemic necrosis of an area of myocardium is defined as?
    MI-myocardial infarction
  59. Most common site of the heart for an MI?
    Left ventricle- works the hardest
  60. Visualization techniques for MI?
    • radionuclide thalium perfussion scanning
    • coronary angiography
  61. What is the definitive study to determine CAD?
    coronary angiography (it is an invasive study)
  62. CABG- coronary artery bypass graft is a repair of a coronary artery with a graft from the ________ in the leg.
    saphenous vein
  63. PTCA- Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty uses a __________ to _______ narrowed areas.
    • uses a balloon to dialte narrowed areas
    • Balloon is infalted to push bloackage up against arteriole wall
  64. PTCRA-percutaneous transluminal coronary rotational ablation ________ plaque.
    pulverizes (high speed rotoblade covered with diamond crystals), which disperses it into the circulation
  65. DCA- Directional coronary atherectomy.
    Cuts plaque, keeps in catheter then it can be removed
  66. Inflammation in the blood stream is a newly recongnized cause of MI's which is linked to _______ and __________.
    • long standing gum disease
    • chronic urinary tract infections
  67. CHF? What is it?
    • Congestive heart failure
    • inability of the heart to propell blood at an efficient rate and volume. Results in congestion of circulatory system
  68. Major cause of CHF?
  69. CHF-Left ventricular failure?
    • left ventricle cannot pump enough blood equal to the venous return in the right ventricle. (Most common)
    • pulmonary vein backs up
    • can lead to pulmonary edema
  70. CHF-Right ventricular failure?
    • Right ventricle cannot pump as much blood as it receives from the right atrium
    • leads to engorgement of SVC and IVC and edema of the lower extremities
  71. Left vs Right ventricular failure:radiographic appearance?
    • Left- increased vascular markings
    • Right- right ventricle and atrium enlarged
  72. Pulmonary edema is the most common sign of?
    CHF-left ventricular failure
  73. What is the most common cause of pleural effusions?
  74. Hypertension results from persistant ________ resistance.
  75. Atherosclerosis?
    • type of arteriosclerosis
    • artery wall thickens as the result of a build-up of fatty materials (plaque)
  76. Arteriosclerosis?
    hardening or thickening (sclerosis) of the arterial walls
  77. Prolonged HBP forces teh heart to overwork causes ______ to enlarge and eventually fail.
    left ventricle
  78. Hypertensive heart disease: An enlarged left ventricle wall has _____ blood flow due to _______ chamber size which leads to _______ cardiac output.
    • less
    • decreased
    • decreased
  79. CVA? What is it?
    Cerebral vascular accident: occlusion of cerebral or carotid arteries leads to ischemia of brain tissue
  80. Most common cause of CVAs?
  81. Causes of CVAs?
    • Hypertension
    • atherosclerosis (thrombus)
    • embolus (broken from thrombus)
    • rupture of vessel (cerebral hemmorage)
  82. Types of aneurysms?
    • Saccular
    • Berry
    • Dissecting
    • Fusiform
  83. Saccular aneurysm?
    • Sac involves one side of the vessel
    • Most often in brain
    • main cause of CVA (due to hypertension)
  84. Berry aneurysm?
    • Affect cerebral arteries of circle of willis
    • main cause of subarachnoid bleeds
  85. Dissecting aneurysm?
    • Medial layer of vessel splits allowing blood to accumulate between layers
    • often effects thoracic aorta
  86. Fusiform aneurysm?
    • Buldge includes entire circumference of vessel wall
    • Commonly occurs in the abdominal aorta
  87. Position for conventional visualization of an aneurysm?
    • lateral abdomin/l-spine
    • vessel is usually calcified
  88. Palpation of abdomen detects abdominal aneurysms... why?
    It's an artery and therefore it will pulse
  89. Thrombosis is more common in ______.
    veins. Blood flow is slower and platelets fall out easier
  90. Thrombus formation is usually composed of primarily ___________.
    • platelets.
    • This happens as the blood flow slows, the platelets fall out of the blood stream
  91. Rheumatic fever is an immune response to ______.
    streptococcus infection
  92. Mitral stenosis and mitral insufficiency is a complication of?
    rheumatic fever
  93. What is phlebitis?
    inflammation of a vein
  94. Notes: Angiography PT care: Informed consent, preliminary blood tests (renal function, potassium level, anticoagulation state), allergy hx, NPO 6-8hrs prior.
    PT meds- sedative, steriods, antihistimines and all the other stuff ECG, pulse oximeter automatic BP....
  95. Angiography catheterization arterial access?
    • femoral artery (most common)
    • axillary artery
    • brachial artery (least common)
  96. Angiography venous access?
    • femoral vein (it's medial to the artery)
    • cubital vein
    • internal jugular vein
  97. Post procedural care for angiography?
    • pressure applied to site: 10min if venous, 15min for artery.
    • Dress puncture site with band-aid
    • PT supine for 6hrs (cannot bend at site) watch for hematoma.
  98. DSA?
    Digital subtraction angiography
  99. In cardiac catheterization, the catheter is introduced directly into one of the _________ or the __________.
    chambers of the heart, or the pulmonary artery
  100. In cardiac catheterization, right cardiac catheterization requires ________ access.
  101. In cardiac catheterization, left cardiac catheterization requires ______ access.
  102. TEC- transluminal extraction?
    Cutting device shaves plaque and vaccum packs debris
  103. Cerebral angiography: Catheter most often introduced into ______ and advanced to level of interest.
    femoral vein/artery
  104. Abdominal angiography uses the _______ catheter in abdominal aorta.
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