1. valence electrons
    electrons in the atom's outermost energy level
  2. family # tells what about valence electrons?
    how many are available
  3. What is directly related to the number of valence electrons?
  4. which groups have the most reactive elements?
    groups 1 and 17
  5. octet rule
    in forming compounds atoms tend to gain or lose electrons to achieve the electron configuration of a noble gas
  6. Who defined the octet rule? why?
    Gilbert Lewis; to explain why noble gases are unreactive.
  7. metals ______ valence electrons; nonmetals ______ valence electrons.
    lose; gain
  8. electron dot structure
    diagrams that show electrons as dots around an element's symbol
  9. atom
    electrically nuetral because it has equal numbers of protons and electrons
  10. ions
    form when an atom or groups of atoms loses or gains electrons
  11. cation; charge?
    is formed when anatom or group of atoms loses valence electrons; postive; more protons than electrons.
  12. naming cations
    • metallic elements- the name of the ion is the same as the name of the element
    • -ex: sodium atom from the sodium cation (Na+)
  13. anion
    atom or group of atoms with a negative charge
  14. formation of anions
    gain of electrons by a nuetral atom or groups of atoms
  15. naming anions
    name of an anion of a non-metal is NOT the same as the neutral atom; take the root of the atom name and add suffix -ide
  16. when group 7A(17) elements form ions we call them ______ ion.
  17. ions of transition metals
    • -charges may vary
    • -some of the ions formed by transition elements do NOT have an octet configuration.
  18. Formation of an ionic bond
    • compounds composed of cations and anions
    • -usually composed of metal cations and nonmetal anions
  19. ionic compounds are _______ ________.
    electrically neutral
  20. how do you find the total negative charge of anions?
    the total positive charge of the cations is equaled by the total negative charge of the anions
  21. ionic bond
    electrostatic forces that hold ions together
  22. what must be specified if cations have more than one oxidation state?
    oxidation state
  23. traditional naming
    • does not indicate actual charge.
    • ending in "ous": lower oxidation #
    • ending in "ic": higher oxidation #
  24. stock system
    • actual charge.
    • Fe+2= Iron (II)
  25. chemical formulas
    shows the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of a substance
  26. formula units
    the lowest whole-number ratio of ions in an ionic compound
  27. oxidation numbers
    equivalent to the charge of the ions
  28. most ionic compounds are what at room temperature?
    solids that form crystals
  29. properties of ionic compounds
    high MP, brittle, not malleable or ductile, can conduct electricity when melted or dissolved
  30. coordination number
    the number of ions of opposite charge that surround an ion in a crystal
  31. metallic bonds
    results from the attraction of the free floating valence electrons for the positively charged metal ions
  32. metals are made up of..
    closely packed cations rather than neutral atoms
  33. valence electrons of metal atoms are modeled as what?
    • sea of electrons
    • -valence electrons are mobile
    • -they can drift freely from one part of the metal to another
  34. sea of electrons explains many prop. of metals:
    • conductivity- electricity is made up of electrons
    • -as 1 electron enters the cloud at 1 end another leaves at the other end
  35. prop. of metals
    mealleability and ductility- cations slide past eachother and electrons flow around in response to the force applied
  36. crystalline structure of metals: 3 possible arrangements
    body centered, face-centered cubic, hexagonal close packed
  37. body centered
    • every atom except on the surface has 8 neighbors
    • ex. Na, K, Fe, Cr, W
  38. face-centered cubic
    • every atom has 12 neighbors except surface atoms
    • ex. Cu, Ag, Au, Al, Pb
  39. Hexagonal close packed
    • every atom has 12 neighbors like face centered but are arranged differently
    • ex. Mg, Zn, Cd
  40. Metal alloys
    • brass- alloy of copper and sinc
    • -corrosion resistance,increased ductility or hardness, stronger (compared to metals)
  41. alloy
    mixtures of 2 or more elements at least one of which is a metal
  42. substitutional alloy
    atoms ofthe alloy components are similar, can replace eachother in the crystal form. EX. bronze
  43. interstitial alloy
    • atoms of the alloy components are very different in size.
Card Set
Ionic and Metallic Bonding