State the three objectives of first aid.
- 1. Save life
- 2. Prevent further injury
- 3. Prevent infection
State the methods of controlling bleeding.
- 1. Direct pressure
- 2. Elevation
- 3. Pressure points
- 4. Tourniquet (as a last resort)
Identify an example of a pressure point.
A pressure point is a place where a main artery to the injured part lied near the skin surface and over a bone.
Apply hand pressure to pressure point to control bleeding at main artery where injury is located.
- Facial artery..........jaw
- Superficial temporal artery..........temple
- Subclavian artery..........collar bone
- Common carotid artery..........neck
- Brachial artery..........inner upper arm
- Brachial artery..........inner elbow
- Radial/Ulnar artery..........wrist
- Femoral artery..........upper thigh
- Iliac artery..........groin
- Popliteal artery..........knee
- Anterior/posterior tibial artery..........ankle
Describe the symptoms and treatment for shock.
Vacant or luckluster eyes, shallow or irregular breathing, cold pale skin, nausea, and weak or absent pulse.
Lay down with the feet elevated 6-12 inches, cover to maintain body heat, reassure/calm victim.
Describe the three classifications of burns.
- 1st degree - mildest, redness, warmth, tenderness, mild pain.
- 2nd degree - red, blistered skin; severe pain.
- 3rd degree - destroyed tissue/skin/bone, severe pain may be absent due to nerve endings destroyed.
State the symptoms and treatment for the following heat related injuries: Heat exhaustion, Heat stroke
Heat exhaustion - Skin is cool, clammy, moist, pupils dilated, normal or subnormal body temp, sweating profusely. Treatment: Move to cool area, loosen clothing, apply cool wet cloths to the head, groin, and ankles, give solution of 1t salt dissolved in 1 liter of cool water, transport to medical facility.
Heat stroke - Hot dry skin, uneven pupil dilation, weak, rapid pulse. Treatment: Douse with cold water, apply wet, cold towels to the body, move to cool place, cold bath and fan, lay on back and elevate shoulders. Place cold packs or towels around the victim's shoulders and neck. Place additional cold packs on the ankles and groin area.
State the difference between an "open" and "closed" fracture.
Closed/simple fracture has broken bone but skin is unbroken.
Open/compound fracture has broken bone and may be protruding from skin.
State the following as applied to electric shock.
Personnel rescue -DO NOT TOUCH THE VICTIM'S BODY, turn off the current immediately or remove wire with non conducting material: broom, bracnch, board.
Treatment - Administer artificial ventilation immediately if the electric shock caused breathing to stop. Check the pulse since electric shock may cause the heart to stop. If you feel no pulse start CPR immediately. Get to a medical facaility immediately.
Describe the methods for clearing and obstructed airway.
- Your first action upon encountering a victim with this problem is to clear the mouth of any food particles, foreign objects, or loose dentures. If not effective use one of the following methods:
- Stand behind the victim, arms around the waist above belly button, below rib cage. Place thumb side of fist against abdomen, give 4 quick upward thrusts, repeat if necessary.
Describe the effects of the following cold weather injuries.
Hypothermia - Cold body, victim appears pale and unconscious, breathing shallow and slow, pulse faint, body tissues semi-rigid. Bring body temperature to normal by wrapping victim in warm blankets in a warm room. Get medical attention immediately.
Superficial frostbite - Ice crystals forming in the upper skin layers.
Deep frostbite - Ice crystals forming in the deeper tissues; get the victim indoors, rewarm the area by placing them in warm water; Never rub the frostbite area. Seek medical attention immediately.