1. What is Cellular Respiration?
    C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H20 + ENERGY

    mitochondira in cells, breaks down carbs and others such as fats, to generate molecules of ATP
  2. What is photosynthesis?
    6CO2 +6H20 + LIGHT ENERGY -> C6H12O6 +6O2

    • process plants use the light energy to convert carbon into carbs such as sugar and starches
  3. In what way does the energy involved with photosynthesis differ from the energy involved with cellular respiration?
    CR is releasing energy within animals, plants and organisms & PS is energy storage in energy-rich molecules.
  4. What is the connection between organisms that are producers and organisms that are consumers?
    • Both use outside sources for energy sources.
    • Producers use energy to produce food for themselves.
    • Consumers consume other organisms that have produced there own food.
  5. What percentage of the Sun's energy is absorbed by Earths land and ocean surfaces?
    51%- warms the planets surface
  6. How does the amount of energy from the sun that reaches producers compare with the amount of energy from the sun that first reaches earths atmosphere?
    Only a small percent of the energy reaches producers ( about 1-2 %)
  7. How is chemosynthesis similar to and different from photosynthesis?
    Different= produces sulfuric acid as a byproduct

    Same= Converts energy and stores it in chemical bonds of molecules to produce materials
  8. Why are herbivores classified as primary consumers?
    They are the first eaters of plants and other producers.
  9. What are secondary and tertiary consumers?
    Secondary: Carnivores that eat mainly herbivores.

    tertiary: Secondary consumers are themselves consumed by other carnivores. ( third set of eaters)
  10. Why are decomposers heterotrophic organisms and not producer organisms?
    Its the "recycling" point of the cycle. Decomposers take energy from leftover or waste material. It then is made to be used by producers for new energy.
  11. In terms of feeding relationships, in what ways can organisms in an ecosystem be identified?
    how they obtain their food and the kind of food they eat.
  12. What is a trophic level?
    a feeding level through which energy and matter are transferred.
  13. Which trophic level or levels contain producers and which contain consumers?
    • first trophiclevel(producers) contains producers.
    • 2nd(primary consumers), 3rd(secondary consumers) and 4th(tertiary consumers) levels contain consumers.
  14. Why is less energy transferred from one trophic level to the next in an ecosystem?
    each time energy is transferred, some of the energy stays and is transformed into unusable heat or energy.
  15. Explain why there is a limit to the length of food chains.
    As you add more levels and organisms, the relationships between each become more complex. therefore , food webs are made
  16. Explain why a pyramid of numbers can be upright or inverted.
    The exposure of some trophic levels that arent able to reach their food source can make it hard to transfer energy to next levels, therefore, it inverts.
  17. Describe two ways that a pyramid of energy is different from a pyramid of numbers and a pyramid of biomass.
    • POE: shows how much energy is transferfing to each level, always upright B/C there cant be less energy in a lower level.
    • POB: shows how much biomass is produced in each trophic level
  18. What makes water a good carrier of ions, such as phosphate?
    Its a polar molecule-> able to make a hydrogen bond-> able to dissolve wide variety of substances
  19. What is metabolic water?
    when energy molecules (carbs,fats) are oxidized, it is the water produced at the endpoint.
  20. How do organisms gain water?
    eating, drinking and absorbing water though the surface of their skin. Also, cellular resp. Plants gain it through root intake
  21. How do organisms lose water?
    Breathing, sweating, and urine and feces. Plants lose it through transpiration
  22. What is a nutrient reservoir?
    Places where substances are stored such as organisms,soil,air and water.
  23. Explain the connections between the slow cycling and rapid cycling of nutrients.
    RC: when nutrients are quickly absorbed and transferred through organisms and reservoirs.

    SC: when substances are stored for long periods of time in nutrient res. when they become unavailable to organisms they are slow cycling
  24. How are plants and animals involved in the rapid cycling of carbon?
    Plants consume large amounts of CO2 from the atmosphere :. when it is released it is done through plants and animals.
  25. List the major carbon sinks on earth
    • deforestation
    • the ocean
  26. How can acid deposition affect ecosystems?
    By emitting sulfer and nitrogen into the enviro., it causes pollution and atmospheric problems that occur
  27. what is the general role of bacteria in the sulfur cycle?
    converting forms of sulfur to another. When bateria creates waste, it becomes required material for another type of bateria
  28. What are two sources of fixed nitrogen that plants can use?
    nitrogen gas and ammonium
  29. Why do organisms need phosphorus?
    used for DNA and ATP and a major component in teeth and bones
  30. How is phosphorus transported through the biosphere?
    the soil and water. it never goes through the atmosphere
  31. What are the effects of increased amounts of phosphorus on aquatic enviro.?
    Creates increase in algal bloom, which requires oxygen to decrease it. When that happens, it blocks the oxygen from being absorbed into the water and can take it away from all aquatic life
  32. How does increased amounts of sunlight have a positive and negative effect on productivity?
    + can increase nutrients avalaible

    - in certain places, can eliminate resources available for organisms
Card Set
questions from unit 1