What is dysmenorrhea?
Pain, usually uterine cramping, associated with the menstrual period
What is amenorrhia?
Absence of menses
What is endometriosis?
Ectopic growth and function of endometrial tissue
What is endometritis?
Inflammatory condition of the endometrium, usually caused by bacterial infection
What is the corpus luteum?
Yellow endocrine body formed in the ovary at the site of a ruptured vesicular follicle immediately after ovulation
What is the primary follicle?
The ovarian follicle that contains the primary oocyte
What is an oocyte?
An incompletely developed ovum
What is Mittleschmerz?
Pain associated with the middle of the menstrual cycle
What does antepartum mean?
The period before labor and delivery
What is gestation?
The period from fertilization of the ovum until birth
What does perinatal mean?
At or around the time of birth
What does prenatal mean?
Existing or occurring before birth
What does nullipara mean?
A woman who has never borne a child
What does grand multipara mean?
A woman who has had seven deliveries or more
What is a miscarriage?
Spontaneous abortion; usually occurs in the first trimester
What is choanal atresia?
A bony or membranous occlusion that blocks the passage between nose and pharynx; can result in serious ventilation problems of the neonate
What are the three phases of the menstrual cycle?
Menstrual phase, proliferation phase, and secretory phase
What is the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle?
- Days 1-5
- ovum is not fertilized
- average length 4-6 days
- flow 25-60mL
- absent during pregnancy
What is the proliferation phase of the menstrual cycle?
- Days 6-14
- Endometrium thickness increases
- Stimulated by estrogen increase
- Anterior pituitary hormones released
- Stimulates cells producing estrogen
- Initiates ovarian cycle
- Maintained by increased estrogen production
What is the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle?
- Days 15-28
- Follows ovulation
- Influenced by estrogen and progesterone
- Prepares endometrium for gestation
What are all the anatomical sites an ectopic pregnancy can occur in?
- 95% Fallopian tubes
- Abdominal cavity
What are the stages of labor?
- Stage 1 - Dilation; begins with onset of contractions, ends with complete dilation of the cervix
- Stage 2 - Expulsion; begins with complete dilation of the cervix, ends with delivery of infant
- Stage 3 - Placental; begins at delivery of infant, ends when placenta has been expelled and uterus contracts
What are some physiologic changes that occur in preeclampsia?
- Cerebral edema
- Hyperreflexia or clonus
- Vessel wall damage - platelet clumping
- Liver necrosis
- Liver edema
- Increased epigastric pain on liver palpation
What is the foramen ovale?
- One-way valve between right atrium and left atrium
- Shunts blood from right to left so bypasses the lungs
- Closes shortly after birth, fuses in first year
What is the ductus arteriosus?
- From the right ventricle, blood enters pulmonary trunk
- Blood shunted from pulmonary trunk into aortic arch through ductus arteriosus
- Closes soon after birth, becomes ligamentum arteriosum in about 3 months
What is the ductus venosus?
- Path by which the umbilical vein connects directly to the inferior vena cava
- Bypasses the liver
- Becomes ligamentum venosum; closes after birth up to 18th day
When can you auscultate a fetal HR?
Fetal heart tones can be detected at the end of the 5th month
What are the expected changes to mom's GI/GU system during pregnancy?
- Morning sickness - caused by high levels of estrogen and hCG
- Delayed gastric emptying - increased risk of aspiration and reflux
- Increased urine production
- Compression of bladder
What are the expected changes to mom's cardiovascular system during pregnancy?
- Total % of body water rises
- Blood volume increases 25-40% by 32nd week
- Increased HR
- Supine Hypotensive Syndrome
- EKG changes can included murmurs that go away after pregnancy
What are the expected changes to mom's respiratory system during pregnancy?
- Estrogen causes nasal mucosa edema
- Tidal volume decreases
- VR increases
When does pregnancy become obvious from visibly looking at mom's body?
When does fundal height reach the umbilicus?
When does fundal height reach the xyphoid process?
Full term; when sitting, looks like a shelf
What are some causes of pre-term labor?
- Multiple gestations
- Intrauterine infection
- Premature rupture of membranes
- Uterine or cervical anatomical abnormalities
What is PID?
- Acute or chronic infection of female reproductive tract
- Fallopian tubes
- Pelvic peritoneum
What are some SXS of PID?
- Moderate to severe diffuse lower abdominal pain
- Vaginal discharge
- Gradual onset 2-3 days
What is cystitis?
- Inflammation of the bladder
- Usually bacterial
What are some SXS of cystitis?
- Suprapubic tenderness
- Frequent urination
- Blood in urine