Q1 Molecular Biology

  1. What is Molecular Biology?
    Study of the molecular basis of life including the biochemistry of molecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins
  2. What is an organic compound?
    Carbon and Hydrogen
  3. What is a functional group?
    Clustes of atoms that determine the properties of organic compounds
  4. What is an isomer?
    Two compounds that identical molecular formula but different structures
  5. What is a stereoisomer?
    • Mirror image.
    • Same connection, but different arrangement
  6. What is an ionic bond?
    One atom loses electrons and another atom gains it.
  7. What is a cation and an anion?
    • Cation- positively charged
    • Anion- negatively charged
  8. What is a covalent bond?
    Two atoms share a pair of electrons
  9. What are the two types of covalent bonding and what is the difference?
    • Polar- unequal sharing of electrons
    • Non polar- Equal sharing of electrons
  10. What is a hydrogen bond?
    A weak, temporary attraction between atoms with partial electric charges
  11. What is a biopolymer?
  12. What is a polymer?
    Macromolecules formed by joining several monomers
  13. What is a macromolecule?
    Joined individual repeating monomers
  14. What are the major functions of protein
    structural support, transport, hormone, enzyme, defense, movement, and gene expression.
  15. What is the building block of protein?
    Amino acids
  16. What are the 3 major components of an amino acid?
    • Amino
    • Carboxyl
    • Remainder group
  17. What are the main functions of nucleotides?
    • Information storage (DNA)
    • Protein synthesis (RNA)
    • Energy transfers (ATP and NAD)
  18. What does a nucleotide consist of?
    • Sugar (ribose or deoxyribose)
    • Phosphate backbone
    • Nitrogenous base
  19. How do bacteria reproduce?
    Binary Fission
  20. How are bacteria cells classified?
    • Demand for O2
    • Mode of nutrition
    • Stain Retention
  21. What are the 3 groups of prokaryotes based on demand for O2?
    • Aerobic- requires O2
    • Facultative anaerobic- able to grow in the presence or absence of O2
    • Obligate anaerobic- unable to grow in the presence of O2
  22. What are the two types of mode of nutrition?
    • Autotrophic- produce organic molecules
    • Heterotrophic- do not produce organic molecules
  23. What are the two classifications of stain retention in bacteria?
    • Gram positive- purple
    • Gram negative- pink
  24. What is the tendency for traits to passed from parent to offspring called?
  25. What is a wiled type gene?
    The original version
  26. What is each trait determined by?
    two alleles (maternal and paternal)
  27. What is meiosis?
    A cell division to make gametes for reproduction
  28. What is incomplete dominance?
    Not all alternative alleles are fully dominant or fully recessive in heterozygotes
  29. What is codominance?
    Produce heterozygote phenotype that is a combination of the two homozygotes
  30. What do chromosomes contain?
    • Intergenic region
    • Regulatory region
    • Genes
  31. Why cells duplicate its DNA?
    • Key for cell division
    • Mitosis
    • Meiosis
  32. What are the two enzymes used to separate strands of DNA?
    • DNA Gyrase - uncoil supercoiled DNA
    • DNA Helicase - separate strands
  33. DNA polymerase fills the gap between what?
    Okazaki fragment
  34. What is a primer?
    Short fragment of RNA complementary to templet strand
  35. What is a primase?
    Enzyme that make primers
  36. What are the base pairs?
    • A-T (U)
    • C-G
  37. What is PCR used for?
    • Clinical diagnosis
    • Genetic Analysis
    • Genetic Engineering
    • Forensic Analysis
  38. What do we need for PCR?
    • Template DNA
    • PCR Primer (Forward and Reverse)
    • Enzyme (Taq polymerase)
    • Nucleotides
    • PCR machine- thermocycler
  39. What are the three basic steps of PCR?
    • Denaturation
    • Primer annealing
    • Primer extension
  40. Why do we use degenerate primer?
    To find the DNA sequence of an organism
Card Set
Q1 Molecular Biology
Quiz One