Micro ch 6

  1. the first to study virus and what got him interested?
    • Dmitiri Iwanowski
    • ==> tobacco mosaic disease
  2. who brought in electron microscope?
    Ernst Ruska
  3. Virus have what kind of shapes/structure?
    • -helix
    • -icosahedron
    • -others
  4. viruses consist only of
    a core of nucleic acid enclosed in a coat of protein; and possibly a membrane-like envelope that's enclosed with it
  5. genome and what it consist of
    the nucleic acid core of the virus and it consist ofeither DNA or RNA
  6. outer protein coat of a virus
  7. capsomeres
    smaller protein units that are bound together chemically to form the capsid
  8. nucleocapsid
    combo of genome and capsid
  9. viruses' envelope may have projections
  10. spikes' function
    attachment and assistance to penetrate into host cell
  11. viruses' main function that they do INCREDIBLY well?
    they replicate!!!
  12. the stages of replication are...
    • 1. attachment stage
    • 2. uncoating stage
    • 3. synthesis stage
    • 4. assembly stage
  13. what happens in the uncoating stage?
    viral nucleic acid is released
  14. what happens in assembly stage?
    combination of viral parts synthesized are used to form new viral particles
  15. lytic cycle
    process by which abacterial virus replicates within a host cell and ultimately destroys the host cell
  16. defense mechanism against virus?
    • antibodies,
    • activity of T-cells,
    • interferons
  17. acyclovir
    a drug that inhibits replication of herpes simplex and chickenpox viruses by interfering with the replication of their DNA
  18. amantadine
    a drug to prevent attachment of influenza viruses to host cells in respiratory tract
  19. azidothymidine
    drug used to treat AIDS to inhibit the key enzyme that functions during HIV's replication cycle
  20. interferons
    antiviral drug that helps protect neighboring cells against viral penetration
  21. kinds viral vaccines
    • -inactivated
    • -attenuated
    • -genetically engineered vaccine
  22. inactivated vaccine
    viral genome is destroyed but capsids intact; they are unable to replicate in cells; most refer to as 'dead'
  23. attenuated vaccine
    • contains viruses that infect cells and replicate but at an extremely low rate, so low that disease symptoms do not develop, obtained by cultivating till a low-replicating strain appears;
    • -often known as "live"
    • -carry a risk due to possibly infecting body cells
  24. genetically engineered vaccine
    • viral proteins are produced by yeast cells that have been altered to express the genes of a specific virus, proteins in return are concentrated, purified and used in vaccine
    • -contain no viruses or viral fragments, so low side effects
  25. vaccines can play key role in ...
    preventing bioterrorism
  26. lysogeny; aka lysogenic cycle
    • a virus enters a host cell but does not replicate immediately
    • -incorporates with cell's gene and replicate whenever gene replicate
  27. provirus
    viral DNA that has integrated itno eukarytoic host chromosome and is then passed on from one generation to the next thru cell division
  28. provirus have all the proteins needed for...
    HIV replication
  29. viral cultivation...or types of cell culture
    • -technology of viral cultivation
    • -diploid fibroblast culture
    • -continuous cell line culture
  30. diploid fibroblast culture
    consists of immature cells c alled fibroblasts, which derive from fetal tissues and retain the capacity for rapid and repeated cell division
  31. viroids
    • ultramicroscopic, single-stranded molecules of RNA without any protein coating
    • -infect plants
  32. prions
    • proteinaceous infectious particles thought to cause diseases
    • -composed mostly of protein
    • -survive heat, radiation, and chemical treatment
  33. cancer
    results from uncontrolled reproduction of cells thru process of mitosis
  34. oncology
    study of cancer
  35. dediffereniation
    cells revert to an early stage in their development, often becoming formless cells that divide as rapidly as early embryonic cells
  36. carcinogens
    cancer-causing substances
Card Set
Micro ch 6