Psychology Chapter 3

  1. Natural Selection
    Darwin's theory that favorable adaptations to features of the environment allow some members of a species to reproduce more successfully than others.
  2. Genotype
    The genetic structure of an organism inherits from its parents.
  3. Phenotype
    The observable characteristics of an organism, resulting from the interaction between the organisms's genotype and its environment.
  4. Heredity
    The biological transmission of traits from parents to offspring.
  5. Genetics
    The study of the inheritance of physical and psychological traits from ancestors.
  6. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
    The physical basis for the transmission of genetic information.
  7. Gene
    The biological unit of heredity; discrete section of a chromosome responsible for transmission of traits.
  8. Sex chromosome
    chromosome that contains the genes that code for the development of male or female characteristics.
  9. Polygenic trait
    Characteristic that is influenced by more than one gene.
  10. Genome
    The genetic information for an organism, stored in the DNA of its chromosomes.
  11. Human behavior genetics
    The area of study that evaluates the genetic component of individual differences in behaviors and traits.
  12. Heritability
    The relative influence of genetics--versus environment--in determining patterns of behavior.
  13. Sociobiology
    A field of research that focuses on evolutionary explanations for the social behavior and social systems of humans and other animal species.
  14. Evolutionary psychology
    The study of behavior and mind using the principles of evolutionary theory.
  15. Neuroscience
    The scientific study of the brain and of the links between brain activity and behavior.
  16. Neuron
    A cell in the nervous system specialized to receive, process, and or transmit information to other cells.
  17. Dendrite
    One of the branched fibers of neurons that receive incoming signals.
  18. Soma
    The cell body of a neuron, containing the nucleus and cytoplasm.
  19. Axon
    The extended fiber of a neuron through which nerve impulses travel from the soma to the terminal buttons.
  20. Terminal button
    A bulb like structure at the branched ending of an axon that contains vesicles filled with neurotransmitters.
  21. Sensory neuron
    Neuron that carries messages form sense receptors toward the central nervous system.
  22. Motor neuron
    Neuron that carries messages away from the central nervous system toward the muscles and glands.
  23. Interneuron
    Brain neuron that relays messages from sensory neurons to other inter-neuron or to motor neurons.
  24. Glia
    The cells that hold neurons together and facilitate neural transmission, remove damaged and dead neurons, and prevent poisonous substances in the blood from reaching the brain.
  25. Myelin sheath
    Insulating material that surrounds axons and increases the speed of neural transmission.
  26. Excitatory input
    Information entering a neuron that signals it to fire.
  27. Inhibitory input
    Information entering a neuron that signals it not to fire.
  28. Action Potential
    The nerve impulse activated in a neuron that travels down the axon and causes neurotransmitters to be released into a synapse.
  29. Resting potential
    The polarization of cellular fluid within a neuron, which provides the capability to produce an action potential.
  30. Ion channel
    A portion of neurons cell membranes that selectively permits certain ions to flow in and out.
  31. All-or-non law
    The rule that the size of the action potential is unaffected by increases in the intensity of stimulation beyond the threshold level.
  32. Refractory period
    The period of rest during which a new nerve impulse cannot be activated in a segment of an axon.
  33. Synapse
    The gap between one neuron and another.
  34. Synaptic transmission
    The relaying information from one neuron to another across the synaptic gap.
  35. Neurotransmitter
    Chemical messenger released from a neuron that crosses the synapse from one neuron to another, stimulating the post synaptic neuron.
  36. Neuromodulator
    Any substance that modifies or modulates the activities of the post synaptic neuron.
  37. Broca's area
    The region of the brain that translates thoughts into speech or signs.
  38. Lesion
    Injury to or destruction of brain tissue.
  39. Repetitive trans cranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
    A technique for producing temporary inactivation of brain areas using repeated pulses of magnetic stimulation.
  40. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    A recording of the electrical activity of the brain.
  41. Computerized axial tomography (CT or CAT)
    A technique that uses narrow beams of X-rays passed through the brain at several angles to assemble complete brain brain images.
  42. Positron emission tomography (PET) scan
    Brain image produced by a device that obtains detailed pictures of activity in the living brain by recording the radioactivity emitted by cells during different cognitive or behavioral activities.
  43. Magnetic resonance image (MRI)
    A technique for brain imaging that scans the brain using magnetic fields and radio waves.
  44. Functional MRI (fMRI)
    A brain-imaging technique that combines benefits of both MRI and PET scans by detecting magnetic changes in the flow of blood to cells in the brain.
  45. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    The part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
  46. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    The part of the nervous system composed of the spinal and cranial nerves that connect the body's sensory receptors to the CNS and the CNS to the muscles and glands.
  47. Somatic nervous system
    The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the skeletal muscles and skin.
  48. Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
    the subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's involuntary motor responses by connecting the sensory receptors to the central nervous system (CNS) and the CNS to the smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.
  49. Sympathetic division
    The subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that deals with emergency response and the mobilization of energy.
  50. Parasympathetic division
    The subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that monitors the routine operation of the body's internal functions and conserves and restores body energy.
  51. Brain stem
    The brain structure that regulates the body's basic life processes.
  52. Medulla
    The region of the brain stem that regulates breathing, waking, and heartbeat.
  53. Pons
    The region of the brain stem that connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain to one another.
  54. Reticular formation
    The region of the brain stem that alerts the cerebral cortex to incoming sensory signals and is responsible for maintaining consciousness and awakening from sleep.
  55. Thalamus
    The brain structure that relays sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex.
  56. Cerebellum
    The region of the brain attached to the brain stem that controls motor coordination, posture, and balance as well as the ability to learn control of body movements.
  57. Limbic system
    The region of the brain that regulates emotional behavior, basic motivational urges, and memory, as well as major physiological functions.
  58. Hippocampus
    The part of the limbic system that is involved in the acquisition of explicit memory.
  59. Amygdala
    The part of the limbic system that controls emotion, aggression, and the formation of emotional memory.
  60. Hypothalamus
    The brain structure that regulates motivated behavior (such as eating and drinking) and homeostasis.
  61. Homeostasis
    Constancy or equilibrium of the internal conditions of the body.
  62. Cerebrum
    The region of the brain that regulates higher cognitive and emotional functions.
  63. Cerebral cortex
    The outer surface of the cerebrum.
  64. Cerebral hemispheres
    The two halves of the cerebrum, connected by the corpus callosum.
  65. Corpus callosum
    The mass of nerve fibers connecting the two hemispheres of the cerebrum.
  66. Frontal lobe
    Region of the brain located above the lateral fissure and in front of the central sulcus; involved in motor control and cognitive activities.
  67. Parietal lobe
    Region of the brain behind the frontal lobe and above the lateral fissure; contains somatosensory cortex.
  68. Occipital lobe
    Rearmost region of the brain; contains primary visual cortex.
  69. Temporal lobe
    Region of the brain found below the lateral fissure; contains auditory cortex.
  70. Wernicke's area
    A region of the brain that allows fluent speech production and comprehension.
  71. Motor cortex
    The region of the cerebral cortex that controls the action of the body's voluntary muscles.
  72. Somatosensory cortex
    The region of the parietal lobes that processes sensory input from various body areas.
  73. Auditory cortex
    The area of the temporal lobes that receives and processes auditory information.
  74. Visual cortex
    The region of the occipital lobes in which visual information is processed.
  75. Association cortex
    The parts of the cerebral cortex in which many high-level brain processes occur.
  76. Endocrine system
    The network of glands that manufacture and secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
  77. Hormone
    One of the chemical messengers, manufactured and secreted by the endocrine glands, that regulates metabolism and influence body growth, mood, and sexual characteristics.
  78. Pituitary gland
    Located in the brain, the gland that secretes growth hormone and influences the secretion of hormones by other endocrine glands.
  79. Testosterone
    The male sex hormone, secreted by the testes, that stimulates production of sperm and is also responsible for the development of male secondary sex characteristics.
  80. Estrogen
    The female sex hormone, produced by the ovaries, that is responsible for the release of eggs from the ovaries as well as for the development and maintenance of female reproductive structures and secondary sex characteristics.
  81. Plasticity
    Changes in the performance of the brain; may involve the creation of new synapses or changes in the function of existing synapses.
Card Set
Psychology Chapter 3
Psychology vocabulary Chapter 3