Psychology Chapter 2

  1. Theory
    An organized set of concepts that explains a phenomenon or set of phenomena.
  2. Determinism
    The doctrine that all events--physical, behavioral, and mental-- are determined by specific causal factors that are potentially knowable.
  3. Hypothesis
    A tentative and testable explanation of the relationship between two (or more) events or variables; often stated as a prediction that a certain outcome will result from specific conditions.
  4. Observer bias
    The distortion of evidence because of the personal motives and expectations of the viewer.
  5. Standardization
    A set of uniform procedures for treating each participant in a test, interview, or experiment, or for recording data.
  6. Operational definition
    A definition of a variable or condition in terms of the specific operation or procedure used to determine its presence.
  7. Variable
    In an experimental setting, a factor that varies in amount and kind.
  8. Independent variable
    In an experimental setting, a variable that the researcher manipulates with the expectation of having an impact on values of the dependent variable.
  9. Dependent variable
    In an experimental setting, a variable that the researcher measures to assess the impact of a variation in an independent variable.
  10. Experimental method
    Research methodology that involves the manipulation of independent variables to determine their effects on the dependent variables.
  11. Confounding variable
    A stimulus other than the variable an experimenter explicitly introduces into a research setting that affects a participant's behavior.
  12. Expectancy effect
    Result that occurs when a researcher or observer subtly communicates to participants the kind of behavior he or she expects to find, thereby creating that expected reaction.
  13. Placebo effect
    A change in behavior in the absence of an experimental manipulation.
  14. Control procedure
    Consistent procedure for giving instructions, scoring responses, and holding all other variables constant except those being systematically varied.
  15. Double-blind control
    An experimental technique in which biased expectations of experimenters are eliminated by keeping both participants and experimental assistants unaware of which participants have received which treatment.
  16. Placebo Control
    An experimental condition in which treatment is not administered; it is used in cases where a placebo effect might occur.
  17. Between-subjects design
    A research design in which different groups of participants are randomly assigned to experimental conditions or to control conditions.
  18. Random Assignment
    A procedure by which participants have an equal likelihood of being assigned to any condition within an experiment.
  19. Experimental group
    A group in an experiment that is exposed to a treatment or experiences a manipulation of the independent variable.
  20. Control group
    A group in an experiment that is not exposed to a treatment or does not experience a manipulation of the independent variable.
  21. Population
    The entire set of individuals to which generalizations will be made based on an experimental sample.
  22. Sample
    A subset of a population selected as participants in an experiment.
  23. Representative sample
    A subset of a population that closely matches the overall characteristics of the population with respects to the distribution of males and females, racial and ethnic groups, and so on.
  24. Random sampling
    A procedure that ensures that every member of a population has an equal likelihood of participating in an experiment.
  25. Within-subjects design
    A research design that uses each participant as his or her own control; for example, the behavior of an experimental participant before receiving treatment might be compared to his or her behavior after receiving treatment.
  26. Correlational method
    Research methodology that determines to what extent two variables, traits, or attributes are related.
  27. Correlation coefficient
    A statistic that indicates the degree of relationship between two variables.
  28. Reliability
    The degree to which a test produces similar scores each time it is used; stability or consistency of the scores produced by an instrument.
  29. Validity
    The extent to which a test measures what it was intended to measure.
  30. Self-report measure
    A self-behavior that is identified through a participants's own observations and reports.
  31. Behavioral measure
    Overt actions or reaction that is observed and recorded, exclusive or self-reported behavior.
  32. Naturalistic observation
    A research technique in which unobtrusive observations are made of behaviors that occur in natural environments.
  33. Case study
    Intensive observation of a particular individual or small group of individuals.
  34. Informed Consent
    The process through which individuals are informed about experimental procedures, risks and benefits before they provide formal consent to become research participants.
  35. Debriefing
    A procedure conducted at the end of an experiment in which the researcher provides the participant with as much information about the study as possible and makes sure that no participant leaves feeling confused, upset, or embarrassed.
Card Set
Psychology Chapter 2
Psychology Vocabulary Chapter 2