The study of drugs and their interactions with living cells or systems
true or false. Pharmacology deals with legal and illegal drugs, prescription and nonprescription medications, and herbal and nonherbal supplements.
Chemical substances that affect living tissue and are used in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of a disease or medical condition.
Is food considered a drug?
When does the distinction become less clear in whether food is a drug or not?
with the recent advent of adding chemical substances from plants into foods for a variety of medical effects
__________ are possible with almost all drugs
Adverse Side Effects (ADE's)
How many characteristics are there that one must know to be able to administer a drug safely?
What are the 7 characteristics one must know to safely administer a drug?
4. Side effects
#1 characteristic to safely administer a drug
the appropriate dose to used (given the client's weight, age, and physiological status. I.e. children and elderly patient's often require lower doses of drugs
#2 characteristic to safely administer a drug
the route of administration
#3 characteristic to safely administer a drug
the indication or reason for using the drug
#4 characteristic to safely administer a drug
significant side effects and potential adverse reactions
#5 characteristic to safely administer a drug
relevant drug interactions
#6 characteristic to safely administer a drug
contraindications for using the drug in a particular client
#7 characteristic to safely administer a drug
appropriate monitoring techniques and interventions in case of a medical emergency
Who was the sumerian physician who promoted that disease resulted from natural causes rather than evil spirits back in 3000 B.C. (5th century B.C.)
Who is "the father of medecine"?
History reveals that ______ and _________ ________ grown in monastery gardens were used by religious orders to treat the sick
In the 16th century, the first __________ was written as an authoritative set of drug standards
a collection of drug information in a specific geographic area and contains all of the authorized drugs available within a country including their descriptions, formulas, strengths, standards of purity, and doseforms
When did the first British pharmacopeia appear?
When did the United State's pharmacopeia appear?
in 1820, following shortly after the French in 1818
Drugs and dosages were used _________ and in the 19th century much research was directed at determining accurate drug dosage
by best guess or statistical probablitites using experience
true or false. Scientific pharamcologic practices have begun to replace empirical drug use
What did scientific pharmacologic practices do?
established precision in manufacturing drugs
Where were drugs originally derived from?
As science developed, what 4 other places are drugs derived from?
animal substance: insulin, estrogen
mineral products: iron, calcium
synthetic material: in labs
Plants are still used: leaves, roots, seeds
What has been done to make the drugs that come from plants more potent than derived from chewing the plant or drinking tea from the plant parts?
the pharmacologically active part of the plant is separated from the plant
What are 2 examples of drugs that are more potent because the pharmacological active part of the plant had been separated from the plant?
active ingredients in some mouth rinse formulations (listerine)