Microbiology Exam 1

  1. Definition of Microbiology
    study of any small, usually unicellular living thing or infectious, replicating disease agent (like viruses), and response of host to such replicating disease agent (immunology)
  2. All true life is
    • cellular (with DNA genome, RNA, ribosomes to make proteins, and cell membranes)
    • with metabolism
    • reproduction
    • development and differentiation
    • interaction with environment and other cells
    • capable of evolving.
  3. Bacteria, protozoans, and other small “animalcules” were discovered in 1673 by
    Anton van Leeuwenhoek
  4. Joseph Lister
    showed correlation between reduction of infection in surgery and use of phenol and heat-sterilization to reduce number of bacteria
  5. Lazaro Spallinzani
    reported boiling broths in glass flasks and sealing by melting glass neck of flask prevented growth of microbes which colonize broth in open flasks.
  6. Louis Pasteur
    showed boiling would prevent microbial growth in swan-necked flask, and that air was a source of microbial colonization of broth. However, some reports of bacterial growth in boiled broth, due to presence of heat-resistant bacterial endospores.
  7. Frederich Cohn
    established that culture media must be sterilized by heated steam and high pressure to kill endospores.
  8. Matthias Schleiden (plants) and Theodor Schwann (animals)
    proposed organisms are composed of the same basic unit (cells)
  9. Rudolf Virchow
    theorized all cells arise from division of pre-existing cells
  10. Joseph Lister
    showed correlation between reduction of infection in surgery and use of phenol and heat-sterilization to reduce number of bacteria.
  11. Robert Koch
    demonstrated Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax in mice. Later, demonstrated Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis.
  12. Koch’ Postulates (4):
    • Suspected pathogenic microbe must be present in diseased animals but not in healthy ones.
    • Microbe must be isolated and grown in pure culture.
    • When microbe from culture injected into animal, disease results.
    • Same microbe must be re-isolated from diseased animals.
  13. prepared vaccines against rabies virus and anthrax, using attenuated (enfeebled strains of pathogen, which lost virulence genes)
    Louis Pasteur
  14. Alexander Fleming
    discovered the antibiotic Penicillin
  15. studied fermentation of wine to ethanol by yeast, organic acids by bacteria- developed pasteurization to preserve wine
    L. Pasteur
  16. Sergei Winogradsky
    examined soil bacteria, discovered autotrophic (CO2-fixing) bacteria which oxidize simple inorganic compounds like ammonia.
  17. Martinus Beijerinck
    discovered bacterial N fixation.
  18. Six elements predominate in living things
    • carbon (C)
    • hydrogen (H)
    • oxygen (O)
    • nitrogen (N)
    • phosphorous (P)
    • sulfur (S)
  19. Elements responsible for osmotic balance of cells and nerve impulses.
    • K
    • Na
    • Cl
  20. Elements found in enzymes:
    • Ca
    • Mg
    • Mn
    • Fe
    • Cu
    • Zn
  21. covalent bond
    • atoms share e-
    • Very strong and stable in solutions of water.
    • 2 atoms may not share electrons equally; nucleus of one atom attracted to shared e- more than other, resulting in slight imbalance of charge.
  22. Electronegativity
    measure of how great attraction between nucleus of atom and e- in outer shell is. The more different the electronegativities of 2 atoms in a covalent bonds are, the more imbalanced is the charge over molecule (more polar).
  23. Carbon atoms can form bonds with each other, forming
    complex chains or polymers.
  24. ionic bond
    • atoms exchange e-
    • Strong in solid crystals, but rather weak in water solutions
    • example is magnesium chloride
  25. Functional Groups
    Clusters of atoms that interact together in chemical reactions
  26. Name Functional Groups:
    • Hydroxyl
    • Amino
    • sulfhydryl
    • phosphate
    • carbonyl
  27. Properties of water
    • O covalently bonded to 2 H atoms
    • Although shared, e- spend more time on O, less on H, so partial – charge on O, + charges on H (polar molecule)
    • Polarity of water molecule: interacts with charged atoms (ions) or other polar molecules- a good solvent for polar (hydrophyllic = water loving) molecules like salts.
  28. What happens when a compound dissolves in water? Why does calcium chloride (CaCl2) dissolve readily in water?
  29. Why is H2S a smelly gas while H2O is a pleasant liquid?
  30. What is meant by a hydrophyllic compound vs. a hydrophobic compound? give some examples of each.
  31. What determines how many and what sort of chemical bonds an atom of an element will form?
  32. What sorts of bonds do atoms of carbon form? What sorts of bonds does the element chlorine form? Why does this allow carbon atoms to form the backbone of complex molecules found in living things?
  33. Why isn't argon found in living organisms, even though it makes up 0.9% of earth's atmosphere?
  34. What does pH measure?
    proton concentration in water
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Microbiology Exam 1
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