government final vocab

  1. direct or participatory democracy
    a government in which all or most citizens participate directly
  2. representative democracy
    a government in which leaders made decisions by winning a competitive struggle for popular vote
  3. elite
    people who posses a disproportionate share of some resource
  4. marxist view
    view that the government is dominated by capitalists
  5. power elite view
    view that the government is dominated by a few top leaders, most of whom are outside the government
  6. bureaucratic view
    view that the government is dominated by appointed officials
  7. pluralist view
    the belief that competition among all affected interests shapes public policy
  8. articles of confederation
    a weak constitution that governed america during the revolutionary war
  9. constitutional convention
    a meeting in philadelphia in 1787 that produced the new constitution
  10. virginia plan
    proposal to create a strong national government
  11. new jersey plan
    the proposal to create a weak national government
  12. great compromise
    plan to have a popularly elected house based on state population and a state-elected senate with two members per state
  13. republic
    a government in which elected representatives make the decisions
  14. judicial review
    the power of the courts to declare laws unconstitutional
  15. federalism
    government authority shared by national and local governments
  16. enumerated powers
    the powers given to the national government that are stated in the constitution
  17. reserved powers
    powers given, or reserved, to the state governments
  18. concurrent powers
    powers shared by the national and state governments
  19. separation of pwers
    constitutional power is shared by three branches of government; executive, legislative, judicial
  20. faction
    a group with a distinct political interest
  21. federalists
    those who favor a stronger government
  22. antifederalists
    those who favor a weaker government
  23. coalition
    an alliance of factions
  24. of rights
    the first ten amendments to the constitution
  25. habeaus corpus
    an order to produce an arrested person before a judge
  26. bill of attainder
    a law that declares a person, without a trial, to be guilty of a trial
  27. ex post facto law
    a law that makes an act criminal although the act was legal when committed
  28. amendment
    a new provision in the constitution that has been ratified by the states
  29. line-item veto
    an executive's ability to block a particular provision in a bill passed by the legislature
  30. devolution
    • the effort to transfer responsibility for many public programs and services from the federal govt to the states.
    • the weakening of national government
  31. block grant
    money from the national government that states can spend within broad guidelines
  32. mandate
    terms set by the national government that states must meet whether or not they accept federal grants
  33. necessary and proper clause
    section of the constitution allowing congress to pass all laws necessary and proper to its duties and has permitted congress to exercise powers not specifically given to it
  34. nullification
    • a state can declare void a federal law that, in the states opinion, violates the constitution
    • this is NOT constitutional
  35. dual federalism
    the national government is supreme in its sphere and the states are supreme in theirs, and the two spheres are to be kept separate
  36. police power
    state power to enact laws promoting health, safety and morals
  37. initiative
    process that permits voters to put forth legistlative measures directly onto the ballot
  38. referendum
    procedure enabling voters to reject a measure passed by the legislature
  39. recall
    procedure whereby voters can remove an elected official from office
  40. grants-in-aid
    money given by the national government to the states
  41. categorical grants
    federal grants for specific purposes
  42. revenue sharing
    federal sharing of a fixed percentage of its revenue with the states
  43. conditions of aid
    terms set by the national government that the states must meet if they are to receive certain federal funds
  44. waiver
    a decision by an administrative agency granting some other part permission to violate a law or rule that would otherwise apply to it
  45. second-order devolution
    the flow of power and money from the states to local governments
  46. third-order devolution
    the increased role of nonprofit organizations and private groups in policy implamentation
  47. express preemption
    a federal law or regulation that contains language explicitly displacing or superseding any contrary to any state or local laws
  48. implied preemption
    a federal law or regulation that contains language conflicting with state or local laws, that cannot be effectively implemented due to such law or that concerns matters which washington possesses exclusive constitutional powers--like treaty making.
  49. political culture
    a distinctive and patterned way of thinking about how political and economic life ought to be carried out
  50. civic duty
    a belief that one has an obligation to participate in civic and political affairs
  51. civic competence
    a believe that one can affect government policies
  52. class consciousness
    a believe that you are a member of an economic group whos interest are opposed to people in other such groups
  53. orthodox
    a belief that morality and religion out to be of decisive importance
  54. progressive
    a belief that personal freedom and solving social problems are more important than religion
  55. political efficacy
    a belief that you can take a part in politics or that a government will respond to the citizenry
  56. internal efficacy
    the ability to understand and take part in politcs
  57. external efficacy
    the willingness of the state to respond to citizenry
  58. due process of law
    denies the government the right, without due process of law, to deprive people of their life, liberty or property
  59. equal protection of the law
    a standard of equal treament that must be observed by the government
  60. selective incorporation
    court cases that apply the bill of rights to the states
  61. freedom of expression
    the right of the people to speak, publish and assemble
  62. prior restraint
    censorship of a publication
  63. clear and present danger test
    law should not punish speech unless there is a clear and present danger of creating harmful actions
  64. libel
    writing that falsely injures another person
  65. symbolic speech
    an act that conveys a political message
  66. free exercise clause
    first amendment requirement that law cannot prevent free exercise of religion
  67. establishment clause
    first amendment ban on laws respecting an establishment of religion
  68. wall of separation
    court ruling that government cannot be involved with religion
  69. exclusionary rule
    improperly gathered evidence cannot be introduced in a criminal trial
  70. centralists
    those who favor a greater national authority rather than state authority
  71. checks and balances
    system in which each branch of govt can limit the power of the other
  72. commerce clause
    gives congress the power to regulate commerce among the states, with foreign nations
  73. concurrent powers
    power held by both the congress and the states
  74. confederation
    system in which sovereign states are loosely tied to a central govt
  75. decentralists
    those who favor a greater authority in the states than in the national authority
  76. elastic clause
    states that congress can exercise those powers that are necessary and proper for carrying out their enumerated powers
  77. new federalism
    system in which the national government restores greater authority back to the states
  78. federalist papers
    • madison, hamilton and jay
    • persuading new york to adopt the constitution
  79. judicial review
    • power of the courts to rule the constitutionality of laws
    • established by marbury v madison
  80. popular sovereignty
    principle in which ultimate political authority rests with the people
  81. civil rights
    the rights of th people to be treated without unreasonable unconstitutional differences
  82. suspect classification
    classification of people on the basis of their race or ethnicity
  83. strict scrutiny
    a supreme court test to see if a law denies equal protection because it does not serve a compelling state interest and is not narrowly tailored to achieving a goal
  84. de jure segregation
    racial segregation by law
  85. de facto segregation
    social segregation
  86. equality of result
    making certain that people achieve the same result
  87. affirmative action
    programs designed to increase minority participation by taking positive steps to appoint more minority group members
  88. equality of opportunity
    giving people the same chance at success or failure
  89. public opinion
    how people think or feel about particular things
  90. poll
    a survey of political opinion
  91. exit polls
    polls based on interviews conducted on election day with randomly selected voters
  92. political socialization
    process by which background traits influence ones political view
  93. gender gap
    difference between political views of men and women
  94. political ideology
    a more or less consistent set of belifs about what policies government out to pursue
  95. political elites
    persons with a disproportionate share of political power
  96. grandfather clause
    a clause in the registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors voted before 1867
  97. white primary
    the practice in keeping blacks from voting in souther states primaries through arbitrary use of registration requirements and intimidation
  98. australian ballot
    a government printed ballot of uniform dimensions to be cast in secret that many states adopted in 1890 to reduce voting fraud associated with party printed ballots
  99. activits
    people who tend to participate in all forms of politics
  100. political party
    a group that seeks to elect candidates to public office
  101. mugwumps/progressives
    republican party faction of 1890s to 1910 composed of reformers who opposed patronage
  102. realignment/ critical period
    periods when a major, long lasting shift occurs in the popular coalition supporting one or both parties
  103. split ticket
    voting for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election
  104. straight ticket
    voting for candidates who are all in the same party
  105. office-bloc ballot
    a ballot listing all candidates of a given office under the name of that office
  106. party-column ballot
    a ballot listing all candidates of a given party together under the name of their party
  107. national convention
    a meeting of party delegates held every four years
  108. national committee
    delegates who run party affairs between national conventions
  109. congressional campaign committee
    a party committe in congress that provides funds to members and would-be members
  110. national chairman
    day to day party manager elected by the national committee
  111. superdelegate
    party leaders and elected officials who become delegates the national convention without running in primaries or caucuses
  112. political machine
    a party organization that recruits members by dispensing patronage
  113. ideological party
    a party that values principled stands on issues above all else
  114. solidary incentives
    the social rewards, sense of pleasure or status
  115. plurality system
    an electoral system in which the winner is the person who gets the most votes, even if he or she does not recieve the majority, just more than the next
  116. caucus
    a meeting of party members to select delegates backing on or another primary candidate
  117. incumbent
    the person already holding office
  118. coattails
    the alleged tendency of candidates to win more votes because of the presence of a better known candidate
  119. political action committee
    a committee set up by a corporation, labor union, or interest group that raises and spends campaign money from voluntary donations
  120. general election
    an election held to choose which candidate will hold office
  121. primary election
    an election held to chose candidate for office
  122. closed primary
    a primary election in which voting is limited to already registered party members
  123. open primary
    a primary election in which voters may choose in which party to vote as they enter the polling place
  124. blanket primary
    a primary election in which each voter may vote for candidates from both parties
  125. runoff primary
    a second primary election held when no candidate wins a majority of the votes in the first primar
  126. soft money
    funds obtained by political parties that are spent on party activities, general use
  127. 527 organizations
    organizations that raise and spend money to advance political causes
  128. prospect voting
    voting for a candidate because you favor his ideas
  129. retrospective voting
    voting for a candidate because you like his past actions in office
  130. 501(c)(3) organization
    nonprofit group that may legally address political matters but may not lobby, donations are tax deductible.
  131. 501(c)(4) organization
    non profit group that is permitted to lobby and donations are NOT tax deductible
  132. interest group
    an organization of people sharing a common interest or goal that seeks to influence the making of public policy
  133. public-interest lobby
    a political organization whose goals will principally be to benefit its members
  134. political cue
    a signal telling a legislator what values are at stake in a vote and how that issue fits into his or her own political views
  135. ratings
    assessments of a representatives voting record on issues important to an interest group
  136. equal time rule
    an FCC rule that if a broadcaster sells time to one candidate, it must sell equal time to others
  137. trial balloon
    information leaking to the media to test the publics reaction to possible policy
  138. selective attention
    paying attention only to those news stories with which on already agrees
  139. adversarial press
    the tendency of the media to be suspicious of officials and eager to reveal unflattering stories about them
  140. bicameral legislature
    a lawmaking body made up of two chambers
  141. marginal districts
    political districts in which candidates elected to the house of reps win in close elections, typically less than 55 percent of the vote
  142. safe districts
    districts in which incumbents win by margins of 55 or more percent
  143. conservative coalition
    an alliance between republican and conservative democrats
  144. majority leader
    the legislative leader elected by party member holding the majority of seats in the house or senate
  145. minority leader
    the legislative leader elected by party members holding a minority in the house or senate
  146. whip
    a senator or representative who helps the party leader stay informed about what part members are thinking
  147. party polarization
    a vote in which a majority of democratics oppose a majority of republicans
  148. standing committee
    permanently established legislative committees
  149. select committees
    coggressional committees appointed for a limited time and purpose
  150. joint commitee
    a committee with both senators and representatives
  151. conference committee
    the most common joint committee appointed to resolve the differences in the senate and house versions of the same bill
  152. simple resolution
    an expression of opinion either in house or senate to settle procedural matters in either body
  153. concurrent resolution
    an expression of opinion without the force of law that requires the approval of both house and senate but not the pres
  154. joint resolution
    a formal expression of congressional opinion approved by both houses and the president
  155. multiple referal
    a bill may be sent to several committees
  156. sequential referral
    the speaker sends the bill to a second committee once the first committee is finished
  157. discharge rule
    a device where any member of the house, after a committee had had the bill for thirty days, may bring it back to the floor
  158. closed rule
    an order from the house rules committee that sets time limit on debate and no amendments to the bill can be brought to the floor
  159. open rule
    an order from the house rules committee that permits a bill to be amended on the floor
  160. restrictive rule
    an order from the house rules committee that permits certain kinds of amendments but not others to be made on the floor
  161. quorum
    the minimum number of members who must be present for business to be conducted in congress
  162. quarum call
    a roll call in either house
  163. cloture rule
    • a rule used be senate to end or limit a debate.
    • only way to end a filibuster
  164. double-tracking
    a procedure to keep the senate going during a filibuster in which the debated bill is shelved temprarily
  165. voice vote
    a congressional voting in which members shout yea or nay; voting is quick and anonymous
  166. division vote
    a congressional voting in which member stand and are counted
  167. teller vote
    a congressional vote in which members pass between two tellers, the yea through the first and the nays through the second
  168. roll-call vote
    a congressional vote that consists of each member saying yea or nay to their name
  169. pork barrel legislation
    legislation that vies tangible benefits to constituents in several districts with the hope of winning their votes
Card Set
government final vocab
government terms, chapters 1-13 GUUD