Zoo test 1

  1. How many animal species are there?
    • 1.5 million
    • (E.O. Wilson estimated 5-30 million)
  2. Unusual Habitats:
    • Facial Mites
    • Caves
    • Hot Springs
    • Moss on trees
    • Beer Coasters
  3. The average animal is:
    • Crunchy
    • Buzzy
    • Slimy
    • Scaly
    • Tiny
  4. How many phyla are there?
    How many major ones?
    • 30-36 phyla
    • AND
    • 9 major ones
  5. Lamarckism
    (before Darwinsim)
    • Inheritance of aquired characterics
    • IE: Kids inherit characteristics
  6. Thomas Malthus
    • concerned with human population growth.
    • People are forced to compete for existence because of food supply because we tend to reprodce faster
  7. Sir Charles Lyell
    • Uniformitarinism
    • laws of physics and chemistry remain the same
  8. Charles Darwin
    • Naturalist
    • Formed Theory of Evolution, combined ideas of Malthus and Lyell to do so
  9. (Theory of evolution) Perpetual Change
    Darwin noticed fossils of extinct marine organisms thousands of feet above present day sea level.
  10. Study of fossils suggested that...
    Life forms on earth change
  11. Geoligist proposed....
    that the earth is changed by gradual processes
  12. The fossil record reveals what?
    That the organsims have evolved in a historical sequence
  13. fossils are...
    rare and have to have the right conditions to fossilize
  14. The fossil record allowed Darwin to do what?
    view the evolutionary change across the broadcast of time
  15. because of the fossil record, we can determine how long species survive which is...
    1-10 million years
  16. Artificial selection
    • The change of animals under the domestication by humans
    • ie: dogs breeding with other dogs, creates a new type a dog
  17. (theory of Evolution) Common Decent
    • Living species are descended from other earlier life forms
    • ie: horses...they are HUGE now
  18. Homologies
    • (The evidence Darwin used for common decent)
    • They are anatomical structures within different organisms which originate from a structure or trait of their common ancestral organsim.
    • Any similarity between characteristics of organisms that is due to their shared ancestry
  19. Ontogeny
    The history of the development of an organism through its entire life
  20. Ernst Haekel
    • Ontogeny Recapulates Phylogeny
    • ---Individual development repeats evolutionary decent
  21. Haekel based his law on what?
    The flawed premises
  22. what is a species?
    • 1. share a common decent
    • 2. interbreeding (can exchange genes)
    • 3. geno and phenotypic cohesion
  23. How do species occur?
    • 1.Allopatric speciation (barrier)
    • IE: oceans..etc
    • 2. Founder Effect---Colonization
    • 3.Adaptative radiation
  24. (theory of evolution) Mulitplication of species
    unless there is a high rate of extinction, more species will be produced through time.
  25. Sympatric speciation
    Without reproductive barrier
  26. Evolution..
    Changes over time (slow..gradually)
  27. Punctual equilibrium
    happens real quick
  28. (theory of evolution) Gradualism
    • larger changes in organisms occur by the accumulation of many smaller changes
    • (i.e. evolution is a slow, continuous process)
    • fossil records support gradualism
  29. Neo-Darwinism
    Wesimanns change to darwins theory by removing inheritance of aquired characteristics
  30. theory of evolution was derived from...
    the scientific method
  31. Ecology is...
    The study of living organisms and their intereactions with the enviroment and other living organsims
  32. organism
    the base of the ecological heirarchy
  33. population
    a group of animals coexist with other of the same species
  34. Community
    populations of different species co-occur in more complex associations
  35. Ecosystem
    Consists of all populations in a community together with their physical enviroments
  36. Biosphere
    The largest ecosystem
  37. Enviroment
    Includes abiotic (living) factors and Biotic (nonliving) factors
  38. Niche
    • A multi-dimensional relationship of species with its enviroment
    • (2 types)
  39. Fundamental Niche
    The potentional Niche
  40. realized niche
    The subset of potentionally suitable enviroments that an animal actually experiences
  41. there are 2 limits on population growth...what are they?
    • Density independent
    • Density Dependent
  42. density dependent
    • Abiotic limiting factors
    • IE: frost kills all the mosquitos
  43. Density Independent
    • Biotic limiting factors
    • Ie: competition, predators, parasites
  44. predator/prey and parasite/host (inertaction)
    • (+,-)
    • ie: coyote/rabbit
  45. Commensalism
    • (0,+)
    • Ie: pilot fishes and remoras with sharks
  46. Mutualism
    • (+,+)
    • ie: termites and gut protozoa
  47. Competition is more complex when...
    More than 2 species are sharing a limiting resource, they are competing for it
  48. Competition only occurs when
    or more species share a LIMITING resources not just sharing resources.
  49. Niche overlap
    the portion of resources shared by the niches of two or more species
  50. Competitive exclusion
    Strongly competing species cannon coexist indefinitely
  51. Character displacement
    To coexists in one habitat, species must specialize by partioning a shared resource.
  52. Guilds
    When several species share the same general resource by partitioning resources
  53. Robert Macarthur
    • Studied 5 species of birds
    • How can they coexist?..They each used a diff part of the pine tree
  54. What happens when a predator relies on a single species?
    both pops tend to fluctuate cyclically
  55. batesian mimicry
    platable (non-toxic) prey can deceive potential predators by mimiking distasteful prey
  56. Mullerian mimicry
    2 or more toxic species resemble each other
  57. Keystone species
    An influential species on other species that if it is absent it drastically changes an entire community.
  58. (Trophic Levels and Food Webs) Primary producers
    • Fix and store energy from outside the ecosystem
    • (photosynthetic organisms)
  59. (Trophic Levels and Food Webs) Consumers
    Herbivores eat plants directly; decomposers, bacteria, and fungi
  60. Baulplan
    • German word meaning bluprints or building plan
    • It defines animals and the groups within animals
  61. What is the best way to identify an organism?
    To get the type speciman from a musuem and compare it morphologically
  62. (grades of complexity)
    • All functions take place in single cells, or each cell (if colonial)
    • Protists have this GOC
  63. GOC: cellular:
    There is a division of labor among cells, but no segregation of cells that perform the functions
  64. GOC: tissue
    Specialized cells seggregate organ, or organ system,: there is no segregation of tissue
  65. Body types: Cell aggregate
    • No gut
    • Energy absorption throught
    • No true tissues or organs
    • Ie: Sponges
  66. Sponges are in what phylum?
  67. body types: Sac-like-body plan
    • Has one opening for food and waste
    • Ie: Sea Anemomes
  68. Sea Anemomes are in what phylum?
  69. Body Plan: Tube within a tube
    • 2 openings (like us)
    • More efficient and digesting
    • ie: us, round worm...(phylum nematoda)
  70. Spinal Cleavage
    Cleavage planes are oblique to the polar axis
  71. Radial Cleavage
    Symmetrical to the polar axis
  72. Cleavage
    Process of development after fertilization of the egg
  73. Animals can be divided into groups based on:
    • Grades of complexity
    • Major Body Types
    • Symmetry
    • Cleavage
  74. Linnaues..
    • Swedish Botonist
    • Produced classification scheme for plants and animals
    • "system Naturae"
    • **Constructed the nomenclatural system we use today
  75. Linnaues's system of classification:
    • 1. All animals have a unique name..it is binomial, genus and species epithat
    • 2.Organisms are arranged into groups based on relatedness
  76. Heirachail system (8)
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • family
    • genus
    • Species
  77. Genus name is always..
    Capitalized and italized
  78. Phylogenetics
    • The scientific study of relationships between the many different kinds of life on earth
    • Methods of analyzing and collecting data
  79. Ancestoral character state
    character shared by all members within a group
  80. Derived Characters
    Characters unique to a group or groups
  81. outgroup
    • Organism we will compare the ingroup to.
    • Not closely related to the ingroup but not unrelated to it.
  82. Clade
    Subset of closely related organisms within a group
  83. Synpomorphy
    a derived character shared by all members within a clade.
  84. Any character can fall into 3 categories:
    • Monophyletic
    • Paraphyletic
    • Polyphyletic
  85. Monophyletic
    Shared by all members within a group (have same characteristics)
  86. Apicomplexa
    • All parasitic
    • They live their life inside another organ/cell
  87. Ectoplam
    gel-like (outside)
  88. Endoplasm
    More fluid
  89. Actin Skeleton
    Protein strands out together
  90. Sarcodina
    Amoeboid movement pseudopods
  91. Cilia (cilliaphora) has two main characteristics:
    • 1. At some stage they have cilia
    • 2. Two types of nuclei
  92. Compound Ciliature
    For movement and feeding
  93. Cilia moves in?
  94. Protozoans are a group of...
    Paraphyletic protoplasmic organsims
  95. ameba test:
    • Sand and chitin
    • Made of calcium carbonate
  96. Oldest known protists?
    Randolarians: Marine Forums
  97. Suctorian Cilliate
    Use long tentacles to attach to prey
  98. Cytostone
    Cell mouth
  99. Malaria
    • From mosquitos
    • Phylum: plasmodium
  100. Protists can be divided into...
    2 main groups depending on feeding strategy
  101. Phagocytosis
    • A common type of feeding strategy
    • Injest food particles
  102. Reproduction in protists is mainly by...
    Binary Fission, cilliates, and apicomplexns....sexual reproduction!!
Card Set
Zoo test 1