How many animal species are there?
- 1.5 million
- (E.O. Wilson estimated 5-30 million)
- Facial Mites
- Hot Springs
- Moss on trees
- Beer Coasters
The average animal is:
How many phyla are there?
How many major ones?
- 30-36 phyla
- 9 major ones
- Inheritance of aquired characterics
- IE: Kids inherit characteristics
- concerned with human population growth.
- People are forced to compete for existence because of food supply because we tend to reprodce faster
Sir Charles Lyell
- laws of physics and chemistry remain the same
- Formed Theory of Evolution, combined ideas of Malthus and Lyell to do so
(Theory of evolution) Perpetual Change
Darwin noticed fossils of extinct marine organisms thousands of feet above present day sea level.
Study of fossils suggested that...
Life forms on earth change
that the earth is changed by gradual processes
The fossil record reveals what?
That the organsims have evolved in a historical sequence
rare and have to have the right conditions to fossilize
The fossil record allowed Darwin to do what?
view the evolutionary change across the broadcast of time
because of the fossil record, we can determine how long species survive which is...
1-10 million years
- The change of animals under the domestication by humans
- ie: dogs breeding with other dogs, creates a new type a dog
(theory of Evolution) Common Decent
- Living species are descended from other earlier life forms
- ie: horses...they are HUGE now
- (The evidence Darwin used for common decent)
- They are anatomical structures within different organisms which originate from a structure or trait of their common ancestral organsim.
- Any similarity between characteristics of organisms that is due to their shared ancestry
The history of the development of an organism through its entire life
- Ontogeny Recapulates Phylogeny
- ---Individual development repeats evolutionary decent
Haekel based his law on what?
The flawed premises
what is a species?
- 1. share a common decent
- 2. interbreeding (can exchange genes)
- 3. geno and phenotypic cohesion
How do species occur?
- 1.Allopatric speciation (barrier)
- IE: oceans..etc
- 2. Founder Effect---Colonization
- 3.Adaptative radiation
(theory of evolution) Mulitplication of species
unless there is a high rate of extinction, more species will be produced through time.
Without reproductive barrier
Changes over time (slow..gradually)
happens real quick
(theory of evolution) Gradualism
- larger changes in organisms occur by the accumulation of many smaller changes
- (i.e. evolution is a slow, continuous process)
- fossil records support gradualism
Wesimanns change to darwins theory by removing inheritance of aquired characteristics
theory of evolution was derived from...
the scientific method
The study of living organisms and their intereactions with the enviroment and other living organsims
the base of the ecological heirarchy
a group of animals coexist with other of the same species
populations of different species co-occur in more complex associations
Consists of all populations in a community together with their physical enviroments
The largest ecosystem
Includes abiotic (living) factors and Biotic (nonliving) factors
- A multi-dimensional relationship of species with its enviroment
- (2 types)
The potentional Niche
The subset of potentionally suitable enviroments that an animal actually experiences
there are 2 limits on population growth...what are they?
- Density independent
- Density Dependent
- Abiotic limiting factors
- IE: frost kills all the mosquitos
- Biotic limiting factors
- Ie: competition, predators, parasites
predator/prey and parasite/host (inertaction)
- Ie: pilot fishes and remoras with sharks
- ie: termites and gut protozoa
Competition is more complex when...
More than 2 species are sharing a limiting resource, they are competing for it
Competition only occurs when
or more species share a LIMITING resources not just sharing resources.
the portion of resources shared by the niches of two or more species
Strongly competing species cannon coexist indefinitely
To coexists in one habitat, species must specialize by partioning a shared resource.
When several species share the same general resource by partitioning resources
- Studied 5 species of birds
- How can they coexist?..They each used a diff part of the pine tree
What happens when a predator relies on a single species?
both pops tend to fluctuate cyclically
platable (non-toxic) prey can deceive potential predators by mimiking distasteful prey
2 or more toxic species resemble each other
An influential species on other species that if it is absent it drastically changes an entire community.
(Trophic Levels and Food Webs) Primary producers
- Fix and store energy from outside the ecosystem
- (photosynthetic organisms)
(Trophic Levels and Food Webs) Consumers
Herbivores eat plants directly; decomposers, bacteria, and fungi
- German word meaning bluprints or building plan
- It defines animals and the groups within animals
What is the best way to identify an organism?
To get the type speciman from a musuem and compare it morphologically
(grades of complexity)
- All functions take place in single cells, or each cell (if colonial)
- Protists have this GOC
There is a division of labor among cells, but no segregation of cells that perform the functions
Specialized cells seggregate organ, or organ system,: there is no segregation of tissue
Body types: Cell aggregate
- No gut
- Energy absorption throught
- No true tissues or organs
- Ie: Sponges
Sponges are in what phylum?
body types: Sac-like-body plan
- Has one opening for food and waste
- Ie: Sea Anemomes
Sea Anemomes are in what phylum?
Body Plan: Tube within a tube
- 2 openings (like us)
- More efficient and digesting
- ie: us, round worm...(phylum nematoda)
Cleavage planes are oblique to the polar axis
Symmetrical to the polar axis
Process of development after fertilization of the egg
Animals can be divided into groups based on:
- Grades of complexity
- Major Body Types
- Swedish Botonist
- Produced classification scheme for plants and animals
- "system Naturae"
- **Constructed the nomenclatural system we use today
Linnaues's system of classification:
- 1. All animals have a unique name..it is binomial, genus and species epithat
- 2.Organisms are arranged into groups based on relatedness
Heirachail system (8)
Genus name is always..
Capitalized and italized
- The scientific study of relationships between the many different kinds of life on earth
- Methods of analyzing and collecting data
Ancestoral character state
character shared by all members within a group
Characters unique to a group or groups
- Organism we will compare the ingroup to.
- Not closely related to the ingroup but not unrelated to it.
Subset of closely related organisms within a group
a derived character shared by all members within a clade.
Any character can fall into 3 categories:
Shared by all members within a group (have same characteristics)
- All parasitic
- They live their life inside another organ/cell
Protein strands out together
Amoeboid movement pseudopods
Cilia (cilliaphora) has two main characteristics:
- 1. At some stage they have cilia
- 2. Two types of nuclei
For movement and feeding
Protozoans are a group of...
Paraphyletic protoplasmic organsims
- Sand and chitin
- Made of calcium carbonate
Oldest known protists?
Randolarians: Marine Forums
Use long tentacles to attach to prey
- From mosquitos
- Phylum: plasmodium
Protists can be divided into...
2 main groups depending on feeding strategy
- A common type of feeding strategy
- Injest food particles
Reproduction in protists is mainly by...
Binary Fission, cilliates, and apicomplexns....sexual reproduction!!