SGU Pathology 1

  1. Etiology
    • Causes of disease - microorganisms, physical agents, chemical factors, etc.
  2. Symptoms
    Sensation of illness such as pain, nausea and headache experienced by the patient.
  3. Clinical signs
    Objective symptoms like diarrhea, fever and coughing which are perceptible to the senses of an observer.
  4. Syndrome
    A group of concurrent signs and symptoms of disease.
  5. Pathogenesis
    Step by step the process of the development of the lesion/disease.
  6. Sequel
    The outcome/consequence of disease.
  7. Prognosis
    Statement of what the expected outcome of a condition is likely to be (good, guarded, poor/grave).
  8. The two general causes of disease
    Genetic or acquired
  9. What is the cause of genetically determined disease and when does it manifest?
    • Due to some abnormality of base sequence in the DNA of the fertilized ovum and the cells derived from it.
    • It is inherited but will not necessarily manifest at birth, can manifest later in life.
  10. Congenital anomalies/defects
    Diseases which develop during fetal life and are present at birth.
  11. Cell death
    That point when cell injury becomes irreversible
  12. Two ways cell death occurs
    • Necrosis (oncosis, oncotic necrosis)
    • Apoptosis
  13. Factors that characterize irreversibility
    • Inability to reverse mitochondrial dysfunction
    • Profound disturbances in membrane function
  14. Cell injury
    • Any biochemical or structural alteration that impairs the normal functional ability of the cell.
    • May be mild, transient or reversible.
    • May become irreversible.
  15. Examples of cuases of cell injury
    • Hypoxia
    • Free radical mediation
    • Chemicals
  16. Mechanisms of reversible cell injury
    • Reducing ATP production -> ATPase in cell membrane decreased -> "sodium pump" failure -> Sodium is retained in the cell, water follows, causing acute cell swelling
    • When oxygen levels are low, oxidative phosphorylation ceases and cells rely on glycolysis -> accumulation of lactic acid, lowering the pH of the cell
    • Detachment of ribosomes from rough ER -> stoppage or lowering of protein synthesis -> accumulation of lipid in the cell
    • If hypoxia continues -> increased membrane permeability and diminished mitochondrial function
  17. What are effects of free radicals?
    • Lipid peroxidation of membrances resulting in extensive membrane, organellar and cellular damage (permeability of cell membrane)
    • Lesions in the DNA
    • Cross linking of proteins
  18. How are free radicals created?
    • Absorption of radiant energy (x-ray, UV light)
    • Reduction-oxidation reactions during normal physiologic processes
    • Derived from enzymatic metabolism of exogenous chemicals
    • Released by phagocytic cells in inflammation
  19. 3 ways chemicals can induce injury
    • Binding to cell membrane causing increased membrane permeability and inhibition of ATPase dependent transport.
    • Direct cytotoxic effects.
    • Reactive free radicals.
  20. What are the causes of acute cellular swelling?
    • Loss of blood supply
    • Toxins - bacterial, viral, fungal and poisons
    • Mechanical injury
    • Immune mechanism dysfunction
Card Set
SGU Pathology 1
SGU Pathology first test