What are the endocrine clands
- Hypothalamus (a neuroendocrine gland)
- •Pituitary gland
- •Adrenal glands
- •Thyroid gland
- •Islet cells of the pancreas
- •Parathyroid glands
What is simple feedback?
based upon blood values
What is negative feedback
- a gland response for increasing or decreasing the secretion of a hormone
- ie. insulin or PTH
What is positive feedback?
- increases target organ beyond normal
- ie oxytocin
What is complex feedback?
- Usually involves several glands
- ie T3 and T4 Relaease
Steroids _____ in mornings and _____ in evenings. Growth Hormones _____ during sleep
The hypothalamus is known for
- being an important part of endocrine system
- produces hormones
- working closely with pituitary gland
- releasing and inhibiting hormones
- coordinates with ANS to produce fear and anger
- larger portion
- regulated by hypothalamus
- Releases the Growth Hormone, Prolactin ( breast development and lactation), and Tropic hormones (controls and secretes other hormones by other glands
- is an extension of the hypothalamus
- ADH and Oxytocin are produced in hypothalmus but stored in posterior pituitary
- when stimulated the renal tubules reabsorb water
- creating a concentrated urine
- regulated by fluid volume and plasma concentration
- Stimulates the production of milk into mammary ducts
- Contract uterine smooth muscle
- Released by stimulation of touch receptors in the nipples of lactating women
What are 2 pituitary disorders?
- Gigantism: excessive secretion before the closing of the epiphysis
- Acromegly: excessive secretion after the closing of the epiphysis
Syndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormone, leading to fluid retention, dilutional hyponatremia, and concentrated urine
- Diabetes Insipidus. This is a deficiency of ADH
- increased urine output
- dilute urine
What is the function of the theyroid gland
the release of triiodothyronine (t3) and thyroxine (t4)
T3 and T4 control what?
- Both hormones increase metabolism, which causes an increase in oxygen use and heat production in all tissues.
- produced by the thyroid
- in response to high levels of calcum
- inhibits reabsorption of bones , increases excretion of Ca
- increases bone resorption,
- resulting in calcium release into blood, and promotes the reabsorption of calcium and excretion of phosphorus
- activates Vitamin D
- releases catecholamines
- has an effect on all body systems
- Releases more than 50 steroid hormones
- * glucocorticoids (cortisol)
- - effect on glucose metabolism
- - antiinflammatory action
- - stress response released by negative feedback (CRH and ACTH)
- * mineralcorticoids (aldosterone)
- -released in response to fluid volume and altered potassium levels
What is an Adrenal Cortex Disorder?
- Cushing Syndrome: excess glucocorticoids
- Addison's Disease: generally all 3 glucocorticoids are decreased
A tumor of the adrenal medulla accompanied by hypertension is known as what
The alpha cells in the pancreas release what and the beta cells in the pancreas release what
- alpha- glucogan
- beta- insulin
What are some Thyroid disorders?
- Hyper and Hypothyroidism
exopthalomus, heat intolerance, anxiety, and Graves disease all indicate
mineralcorticoids help control the body's
sodium and potassium levels
- Carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism
- •The body's response to stress
- •Emotional stability
- •Immune function
thyrocalcitonin (TCT) helps regulate
serum calcium levels
When do steroids rise and decline?
When do growth hormones peak?
- steroids rise in the morning and decline at night
- growth hormones peak during sleep
what kind of foods should be fed to a pt with hyperthyroidism?
high in calorie, protein, carbohydrates
what position should a pt that has had a thyroidectomy be in?
Semi Fowlers – avoid flexion of neck, neutral position of neck
In a pt with hypothyroidsim, what should we be concerned about?
Alert to hypoglycemia and hyponatremia
If a patient is hyponatremic from hypothyroidism, what kind of solution would be good to use for IV therapy
- hypertonic solution
- also iv glucose
Hyperparathyroidism is characterized by
- characterized by bone decalcification and the development of renal stones containing calcium
- can have hypercalcemia
What are some conservative treatment options for a pt with hypercalcemia (hyperparathyroidism)
- Increase salt – increase Ca+ excretion
- Limit Ca+
- Medications: (depends if primary or secondary hyperthyroidism)
The troussea and chvostek signs are indicitave of what and possible what?