Bio Quiz 1

  1. Science
    process for producing empirical knowledge by observing natural phenomena
  2. Paradigm
    overarching models of the world that guide our interpretation of events
  3. Paradigm shift
    revolution in scientific thought when majority of scientists accept that the old explanation no longer explains the new observations well
  4. Environmental science
    Systematic study of our environment and our place in it
  5. George Perkins Marsh
    Wrote "Man and Nature" began era of environmental protection
  6. Pragmatic Resource Conservation
    • Utilitarian conservation--manage to use later
    • Roosevelt & Pinchot
  7. Roosevelt
    Started federal agencies for Pragmatic Resource Conservation
  8. Pinchot
    • Pragmatic Resource Conservation
    • 1st chief of forest service
  9. Moral & Aesthetic Nature Preservation
    • Preserve-don't use because of value
    • Muir
  10. John Muir
    Started preservation era, national parks
  11. Modern Environmentalism
    • 60's people more aware: human population growth, fossil fuel extraction/use, recycling, air and water protection
    • Rachel Carson
  12. Rachel Carson
    • Silent Spring
    • started modern day environmental movement
  13. Global Environmentalism
    • Links environmental quality and social progress on a global scale
    • major international environmental conventions
    • sustainable development
  14. Sustainable development
    Not using resources so we have them in the future
  15. Triple Bottom Line
    • sustainable solutions meet:
    • environmental goals
    • economic goals
    • social goals
  16. System
    cntral idea in en. science: network of interdependent components and processes with materials and energy flowing from one component to another
  17. Ecosystem
    • Biological community and it's physical environment
    • -complex assemblage of animals, plants, and their environment through which materials and energy move
  18. simple system
    state variables (compartments) which store resources such as energy, matter, and flows
  19. Open system
    • receive input from surroundings and produce outputs that leave the system
    • -most systems
  20. Closed system
    • exchanges no energy or matter with its surroundings
    • - i.e. biosphere 2
  21. Thoughtput
    The energy and matter that flow intro, through, and out of a system
  22. Positive feedback
    • increase in the state variable leads to further increases in the same variable
    • -can lead to collapse
  23. Negative feedback
    • Dampening affect: too many fish in a pond leads to food scarcity-fish mortality
    • -maintains stability
  24. Emergent properties
    complex varieties- larger influences beyond its borders help stabalize
  25. Energy
    Ability to do work
  26. Kinetic Energy
    Energy in moving objects
  27. Potential energy
    Stored and available energy
  28. Chemical energy
    Energy can be released to do useful work (food, gasoline)
  29. What is energy measured in?
    • Heat (calories)
    • Work (joules)
  30. Heat
    The energy that can be transferred between objects of different temperatures
  31. thermodynamic
    How energy is transferred in natural processes- rates of flow and transformation of energy from one form or quality to another
  32. 1st law of thermodynamics
    states energy is conserved-total amount doesn't change
  33. 2nd law of thermodynamics
    with each successive energy transfer/transformation in a system, less energy is available to do work
  34. Entropy
    disorder tends to increase in all natural systems
  35. Primary producers
    • create carbs and other compounds using just sunlight, air and water
    • -green plants
  36. chemosynthesis
    extracting enerfy from inorganic chemical compounds
  37. Photosynthesis
    • converts radiant energy into chemical energy
    • -10% UV
    • -45% visible
    • -45% infrared
  38. Photosynthesis equation
    • 6h20 + 6co2 + solar energy = c6h12o6 + 6o2
    • water + carbon dioxide + light=glucose + oxygen
  39. Cellular respiration
    • process of releasing chemical energy
    • - reverse of photosynthesis
  40. Species
    All organisms of the same kind that are genetically similar enough to breed and produce offspring
  41. Population
    All the members of a species living in a given area at the same time
  42. Biological community
    all the populations living and interacting in a particular area
  43. Producers
    • Organisms that produce organic material by photosynthesis
    • -mainly green plans and algae
  44. Productivity
    One of the most important properties of ecosystem- amount of biomass produced in a given area during a time period
  45. Biomass
    Biological material
  46. Food web
    individual food chains interconnected
  47. Trophic level
    organisms feeding status
  48. Consumers
    herbivore (plants), carnivore (meat), omnivore (both), scavenger (clean up carcasses), detritivores (consume debris), decomposer (recycling)
  49. Biosphere
    The Earth- land, water, and life supported
  50. Biosphere II
    • Recreated complex biosphere model of Earth
    • -ran out of oxygen and failed
  51. Ecology
    study of relationships btwn organisms and their environment
  52. Important attributes of ecosystem
    Structure, function, complexity, interaction & interdependence, spatial relationships, temporal change
  53. Matter
    • Anything that has mass and takes up space
    • -recycled
  54. Carbon's purposes
    Photosynthesis, It is a structural component of organic molecules, Chemical bonds in carbon compounds provide metabolic energy, Fossil fuels
  55. Respiration formula
    C6h12o6+ 6o2 = 6h2o + 6co2 + solar energy
Card Set
Bio Quiz 1
Bio ch 1 &2