Anatomy and Physiology

  1. Describes the structures of the body
    *What they are made of
    *Where they are located
  2. The study of the functions of anatomical structures

    *individual and cooperative functions
  3. Why do we study anatomy and physiology together?
    In order to understand HOW something works (physciology), we need to accurately describe WHAT the structure is (anatomy)

    All physiological functions are performed by specific anatomical structures
  4. Human Organ Systems
    The body is divided into 11 organ systems; All organ systems work together; many organs work in more than one system
  5. 11 Organ Systems
    • Inegumentary
    • Skeletal
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
    • Endocrine
    • Cardiovascular
    • Blood and Lymphatic System (Immune)
    • Respiratory
    • Digestive
    • Urinary
    • Reproduction
  6. All body systems working together to maintain a stable internal enviroment
    Systems respond to external and internal changes in order to function within a normal range
    State of equilibrium
    Homeostatis functions via feedback loops (negative and postive)
  7. Maintaining Homeostatis Involves:
    Receptor-receives the stimulus

    Control center-processes the signal and sends instructions

    Effector-carries out instructions
  8. Body senses change and activates mechanisms to reverse (negate) the stimulus
    Most physiological mechanisms are negative feedback loops
    *Examples: Regulation of blood glucose, body temperature, blood pressure
    Negative Feedback Loops
  9. Self-amplyfiying change--leads to change in same direction; effector reinforces stimulus

    Normal way of producing rapid changes

    Response to special conditions resulting in a temporary physiologic state
    Positive Feedback

    Examples: childbirth, blood clotting, protein digestions, generation of nerve signals
  10. Forearm positions
    Supine: Palms face forwards or upwards, radius and unla parallel

    Prone: palms face rearward or downward, radius and ulna crossed
  11. Sagital Plane
    Right and left halves
  12. Frontal (cornal plane)
    front and back portions
  13. Transverse (horizontal)
    upper and lower portions
  14. Anterior
    surface of chest and belly
  15. Posterior
    back side
  16. Axial Region
    head, neck, trunk
  17. Appendicular Regions
    • Limbs
    • upper limb (brachium (arm), manus (hand), etc)
    • lower limb (thigh, crus (leg), tarsus (ankle), etc)
  18. Space between 2 tissue layers normally pressed firmly together
    -may separate adn fill with fliud in unusal situations. Ex: pleural cavity: air or fluid can accumulate between parietal and visceral pleura forming space
    -uterus. Ex: in a nonpregnant uterus, mucous membranes of walls are in contact
    Potential Spaces
  19. 4 Body Cavities and Membranes
    • Cranial and Vertebral
    • Thoracic
    • Abdominal
    • Potential Space
Card Set
Anatomy and Physiology
Defining Anatomy and Physiology