AP Psych Chapter 12

  1. motivation
    a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
  2. instinct
    a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
  3. drive-reduction theory
    the idea that a physiological need creates and aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates and organism to satisfy the need
  4. homeostasis
    a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
  5. incentive
    a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
  6. hierarchy of needs
    Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological that must first be satisfied before higher level safety needs and then psychological need become active
  7. glucose
    sugar which circulates in blood and provides energy for body tissues; when it's low, we feel hunger
  8. set point
    the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set, when the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight
  9. basal metabolic rate
    the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
  10. anorexia nervosa
    diets and becomes underweight, yet still feels fat and continues to starve
  11. bulimia nervosa
    episodes of overeating, followed by vomiting
  12. sexual response cycle
    the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson - excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
  13. refractory period
    a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
  14. sexual disorder
    a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning
  15. estrogen
    a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males; in nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity
  16. testosterone
    the most important of the male sex hormones; both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
  17. sexual orientation
    an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homo) or the other sex (hetero)
  18. flow
    a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness or self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills
  19. industrial-organizational psychology
    the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
  20. personnel psychology
    a subfield of I/O psych that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development
  21. organizational psychology
    a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change
  22. structured interviews
    interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales
  23. achievement motivation
    a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard
  24. task leadership
    goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
  25. social leadership
    group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
  26. Maslow's Hierarchy
    Physiological, Safety, Belongingness and Love, Esteem, Self-Actualization
Card Set
AP Psych Chapter 12
AP Psychology Review Motivation and Work