AP Psychology Review Chapter 9

  1. memory
    the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
  2. flashbulb memory
    a clean memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
  3. encoding
    the processing of information into the memory system
  4. storage
    the retention of encoded information over time
  5. retrieval
    the process of getting information out of memory storage
  6. sensory memory
    the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
  7. short-term memory
    activated memory that holds very few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
  8. long-term memory
    the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system, includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
  9. working memory
    a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long term memory
  10. automatic processing
    unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
  11. effortful processing
    encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
  12. rehearsal
    the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
  13. spacing effect
    the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
  14. serial position effect
    our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
  15. visual encoding
    the encoding of picture images
  16. acoustic encoding
    the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
  17. semantic encoding
    the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
  18. imagery
    mental pictures, a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
  19. mnemonics
    memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
  20. chunking
    organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
  21. iconic memory
    a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
  22. echoic memory
    a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
  23. long-term potentiation
    an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation, believed to be a neural basis for learning memory
  24. amnesia
    memory loss
  25. implicit memory
    retention independent of conscious recollection
  26. explicit memory
    memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
  27. hippocampus
    a neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage
  28. recall
    a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
  29. recognition
    a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned; as on a multiple choice test
  30. relearning
    a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
  31. priming
    the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
  32. deja vu
    that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before" cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
  33. mood-congruent memory
    the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
  34. proactive interference
    the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
  35. retroactive interference
    the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
  36. repression
    in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
  37. source amnesia
    attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined
  38. misinformation effect
    incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
  39. Atkinson and Shiffrin (3 stage processing model)
    • Sensory memory (choosing info to store)
    • Short term/working memory (temporary working area)
    • Long term memory (relatively permanent)
Card Set
AP Psychology Review Chapter 9
AP Psych Memory review