AP Psychology Chapter 5

  1. sensation
    collecting physical info from environment
  2. perception
    selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensations
  3. bottom-up processing
    start with sensory receptors and work up
  4. top-down processing
    start with experience and work down
  5. psychophysics
    physical characteristics of stimuli and psychological experience
  6. absolute threshold
    minimum stimulation needed to detect one half the time
  7. signal detection theory
    how we detect stimuli amidst background noise
  8. subliminal
    below absolute threshold for conscious awareness
  9. priming
    activation of associations
  10. difference threshold
    minimum difference between two stimuli to detect one half the time
  11. Weber's law
    difference threshold is a constant minimum percentage
  12. sensory adaptation
    diminished sensitivity of constant stimulation
  13. transduction
    conversion of one form of energy to another
  14. wavelength
    distance from peak of one wave to peak of next
  15. pitch
    experienced highness or lowness of sound
  16. intensity
    amount of energy - brightness or loudness
  17. pupil
    adjustable opening where light enters
  18. iris
    ring of muscle tissue; control eye color and pupil size
  19. lens
    behind pupil; stretches to focus image on retina
  20. accomodation
    eye's lens changes shape to focus on near or far objects
  21. retina
    contains receptors; beginning of transduction
  22. acuity
    sharpness of vision
  23. nearsightedness
    near objects clear, far objects not
  24. farsightedness
    far objects clear, near objects not
  25. rods
    receptors - light and dark
  26. cones
    receptors - detect colors
  27. optic nerve
    nerve that carries neural impulses from eye to brain
  28. blind spot
    where optic nerve leaves eye; no receptors
  29. fovea
    focal point in retina; cones cluster
  30. feature detectors
    nerve cells that respond to specific features
  31. parallel processing
    processing several objects simultaneously
  32. Young-Helmholtz tri-chromatic theory
    3 basic color receptors (red, blue, green)
  33. opponent-process theory
    opposing processes enable color vision
  34. color constancy
    familiar objects have consistent color
  35. audition
  36. frequency
    number of waves per unit of time
  37. middle ear
    between ear drum and cochlea; bone vibrations send messages to cochlea
  38. cochlea
    coiled bone; sound waves trigger neural impulses
  39. inner ear
    cochlea; semicircular canals; vestibular sacs
  40. place theory
    pitch linked to where on cochlear membrane is stimulated
  41. frequency theory
    rate of nerve impulses determines pitch
  42. conduction hearing loss
    damage to mechanical system
  43. sensorineural hearing loss
    damage to cochlear receptive cells
  44. cochlear implant
    converts sound into electrical signals
  45. gate-control theory
    controls pain signals
  46. sensory interaction
    senses can influence one another
  47. kinesthesis
    sensing position and movement of body parts
  48. vestibular sense
    body movement and position (includes balance)
  49. afterimage
    staring at one color makes you see opponent color
Card Set
AP Psychology Chapter 5
Basics of Sensation