Chapter 5

  1. What is learning according to the field of psychology?
    A relative permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience.
  2. What is the Behaviorism?
    it was founded by John Watson, who redefined psychology as the scientific study of behavior
  3. What is associative learning?
    through the association (relationship) between 2 stimuli
  4. What are the two types of associative learning
    learned in class?
    classical conditioning and operant conditioning
  5. How do they differ?
    Classical conditioning is involuntary where Operant Conditioning is voluntary behavior
  6. What is meant by classical conditioning?
    Learning the association of a neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus where the neutral stimulus acquires the response of the meaningful stimulus.
  7. What are the terms used for classical conditioning?
    • Natural Stimulus
    • Unconditioned Stimulus
    • Unconditioned Response
    • Conditioned Stimulus
    • Conditioned Response
  8. Natural Stimulus
    a stimulus which initially produces no specific response other than focusing attention
  9. Unconditioned Stimulus
    The neutral stimulus that reflexively elicits a response without the need for prior learning
  10. Unconditioned Response
    The unlearned, reflexive response that is elicited by the unconditional stimulus
  11. Conditioned Stimulus
    A formerly neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to elicit a reflexive response
  12. Conditioned Response
    The learned, reflexive response to a conditioned stimulus
  13. steps used for classical conditioning
    • Before conditioning: NS leads to no response and UCS to UCR
    • During conditioning: NS+UCS=UCR
    • After conditioning: CS leads to CR
  14. Be familiar with Pavlov’s study demonstrating classical conditioning?
    it demonstrated learning by association
  15. Talk about real-world applications of classical conditioning (phobias, drug habituation, etc.).
    Little Albert Study
  16. Operant Conditioning
    Learning the process that involves changing the probablity that a response will be repeated by manipulating the consequenses of that response
  17. Thorndike’s approaches/contributions to operant conditioning
    • Law of effect
    • Trail and error learning
    • Consequence strengthens or weakens a Stimulus-Response connection
  18. Law of effect
    Principle proposed by Thorndike that responses followed by a satisfying effects become stengthened and more likely to recur in paricular situation, while responses followed by a dissatisfying effects become weakened and less likely to recur in paricular situation.
  19. Skinner’s approaches/contributions to operant conditioning
    • Learning mechanisms the same way for all species
    • Through Reinforecement and Punishment
  20. What is shaping?
    It is the reward approxiamtions of the desired behavior
  21. What are principles of reinforcement?
    Always trying to incrase the likelyhood of the desired behavior
  22. What are principles of reinforcement?
    The different incraments of time after which the reinforcement occurs
  23. What is punishment and how does it differ from
    • Punishment is the attpmet to decrease the likelyhood of a desired behavior.
    • The difference is that they are opposite to each other
  24. What is observational learning?
    Learning through observarion
  25. Attention
    in order to learn we need to pay attention
  26. Retention
    We need to retain the information
  27. Motor Reproduction
    We need to have the physical ability to do the behavior
  28. Reinforcement
    Have to obsereve whether there is a reward or punishment in regards of replicating the behavior
  29. Fixed Ratio
    A rainforecemnt schedule in which the reinfocer os delovered after a fixed number of responses
  30. Variable Ratio
    Reinforcer is delivered after and avarage number of responses, which varies unpredictably form trial to trial
  31. Fixed Interval
    Reifocer delivered for the forst response that occurs after the preset time interval has elapsed
  32. Variable-Interval
    Reifocer delivered for the forst response that occurs after an average time interval, which varies unpredictibly from trial to trial
  33. Behavior Modification
    The application of leadning principles to help people develop more effective or adaptive behaviors
  34. Learned Helplessness
    A phenomenon in which exposure to inexcapable and uncontrollable aversive event prodces passive behavior
Card Set
Chapter 5