Types of tissues
- Simple: single layer
- Stratified: multiple layers
- Squamous: flattened cells
- Cuboidal: cube-shaped cells
- Columnal: tall, columnar cells
- Examples: simple columnar (intestines), stratified squamous epithelium (skin called epidermis).
- Epithelial layers may be derived from embryonic ectoderm, mesoderm, or endoderm.
- Intercellular substances consisting of fibers embedded in a ground substance which could be solid, gelatinous or liquid.
- Loose fibrous connective tissue: binds together other tissues and organs and helps hold organs in place.
- Adipose tissue: cells store droplets of fat.
- Bone: ground substance secreted by osteocytes.
- Cartilage: ground substance secreted by chondrocytes.
- Blood: consists of erythocytes (reb blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), an platelets (cell fragments) in a liquid susbtance called plasma.
- Connective Tissue derived from mesoderm.
- Skeletal muscle: moves skeleton and diaphragm made up of muscle fibers fused together.
- Cardiac muscle: only in heart, cell attached by intercalated discs.
- Smooth or visceral muscle: found in skin and walls of organs with no banding pattern.
- Muscle is derived from the mesoderm.
- Found in the central nervous system and the peripheral n.s consisting of nerves.
- Neurons: capable of responding to physical and chemial stimuli creating an impulse transmited from one to another.
- Glial cells: support and protect neurons.
- Nervous tissue derived from ectoderm.
- Epidermis: stratified squamous epithelium, outer layer.
- Dermis: dense connective tissue and blood vessels, thicker inner layer.
- Arrector pili: attached to hair follicle and erects it when animal is cold or frigthened.
- Stratum corneum: layer of dead cells impermeable to water.
- Stratum germinativum: produce new cells that are pushed higher and create the layer of epidermis.
- Sweat glands: lined with cuboidal epithelium.
In fetal circulation, the umbilical arteries carry blood from the fetus to the placenta with blood low in oxygen and high metabolic waste.
The umbilical vein carries blood from the placenta to the fetus with blood high in oxygen and in nutrients.
If fetal pig is male, it would have an urogenital opening and scrotal sacs.
Divisions of the Body Cavity and Associated Membranes
- Pleural (lungs); Parietal pleura (lining of cavity wall); Visceral Pleura (covering organ).
- Pericardial (heart); Parietal pericardium (lining of cavity wall); Visceral pericardium (covering organ)
- Abdominal:Abdominal or Peritoneal (stomach, pancreas, spleen, liver, gallbladder, intestines); Parietal peritoneum (lining of cavity wall); Visceral peritoneum (coverinf organs)
- Tongue covered with papillae
- Hard palate (roof of mouth) and Soft palate
- Glottis (space in the beginning of respiratory passageway)
- Epiglottis (small flap of tissue supported by cartilage)
- Esophagus (beginning of digestive tract)
- Diaphragm (only in mammals)
- Liver (processing nutrients and detoxifying toxins and drugs) and Gallbladder located under (store billi)
- Stomach with longitudinal folds called gastric rugae that expands and mix food.
- Spleen located along greater curvature of stomach (filters blood)
- Cardiac Valve or sphincter (prevents backflow of food to esophagus)
- Pyloric sphincter located between stomach and small intestine (prevents food from entering intestine prematurely)
- Small intestine
- Duodenum is the portion of small intestine connecting stomach
- Pancreas (as food passes it and duodenum wall secrete enzymes that are added along bile)
- Cecum is the small outpocketing projection of colon at its proximal end (assists in digestion and absorption)