The Scientific study of behavior and mental process.
Derived principles form careful observation.
Copernicus & Galileo
"experimentation through observation"
Experiment, experience, and common sense
Knowledge originates in experience, observation and experimentation.
Sir Francis Galton
"genius" is a hereditary trait
personality & intelligence test
Studied subconscious mind
Study of behavior
Uncovering the subconscious mind.
Argued that the mind is a blank slate at birth
Establish first psychology lab in Germany's University of Leipzig in 1879
Single function of all activities of the mind is for the survival of the species
Philosophy and Biology
Other sciences that influenced Psychology
Socrates, Plato, and Rene Descartes
The mind and body are separate and distinct form each other .
4 goals of modern psychology
Describe, explain, predict, control
Self-reflection or looking inward
When you record or observe other people's mannerisms.
John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner
John B. Watson
Baby and rat experiment. Expose baby to rat and then make a loud noise because they baby was scared of loud noises. Then when they baby saw the rat it would be scared because it thought there would be a loud noise.
Emphasized growth potential of healthy people; used personality methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth.
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
Emphasized importance of meeting our needs for love and acceptance.
The actions of the brain/mind.
Nature v. Nurture
Genes and experiences make up the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
Ex. Do you human traits, develop through experience or do we come equipped with them?
Among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed onto succeeding generations.
Aims to increase scientific knowledge base.
Tackles practical problems.
Medical doctors licensed to give prescriptions to help those with mental disorders.
Help people with everyday issues. Help people want to achieve a greater well-being.
Assess and treat mental, emotional and behavioral disorders.
5 ways to improve your studying
Distribute you study time.
Listen actively in class
Focus on the big ideas
Be a smart test-taker.
Steps in Scientific Method
Identify a problem or formulate a question
Test hypothesis: observation, survey, experiment
Theory( statement based on a lot of evidence)
Why do psychologists study animals?
To understand how different species learn and behave.
A deeper understanding.
Technique used to train a person or animal to do a difficult task.
A memory aid
A nerve cell: the basic building block of the nervous system
Extentions from cell body
Single extention from body
Fatty covering over axon, speeds up messages.
Nods of Ravier
Gaps in myelin covering
Composed of axon fibers
Looking at the cell body
A connection between two nerve cells, but they never touch. Allows nerve cells to communicate.
swollen end of axon
Bumps on dendrites that bouton connects to.
Space between the bouton and the dendritic spine.
Types of Neurons
Many extensions, most common form
Two extensions; sensory and smelling
One extension that is an axon; only found in vertebrate
Chemical messengers that transverse the synaptic gaps between neurons.
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network.
Central Nervous System(CNS)
The brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System(PNS)
Everything that isn't the CNS. The sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body.
Somatic Nervous System
Controls body skeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous System
Involuntary, controls automatic reactions
Controls glands and muscles of internal organs.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Arouses body, speeds up, uses energy
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Calms the body down, slows down, conserves energy
The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Natural opiate like neurotransmitters liked to pain control and pleasure.
A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as a knee-jerk response.
Covering of the CNS
Tough & thick. Outer most layer
Sticky to the brain.
Little, can't be seen with naked eye.
Flows between the arachnoid and the piamater.
Cushions and supports the brain.
What the cerebrospinal fluid flows through.
Math, spacial, emotional
The large band of neural fibers that connects the two hemispheres and carries messages between them.
The body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Chemical messages, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, which are produced in one tissue and affect another.
A pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys that secrete epinephrine (adrenaline) and nor-epinephrine (nor-adrenaline).
The endocrine system's most influential gland, under influence of the hypothalamus, regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity in the brain
The oldest part and central core of the brain.
Base of brainstem, controls heart beat and breathing.
A nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
Help coordinate movements
Brain's sensory switchboard, located on the top of the brainstem. It directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
Is attached to the rear of the brainstem and it processes sensory input and coordinates movement output and balance.
Associated with emotion such as fear and aggression. Drives emotions for food and sex.
Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
Two neural clusters linked to emotion
Directs maintenance activities such as eating, drinking and body temperature. Helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.
Houses personality, creativity, future planning, judgement, etc.
Speaking and muscle movement
Body sensations and some speech.
Receives sensory input for touch and body position.
Receives auditory information/Hearing
Houses all memories.
Surface of cerebrum; conscious thinking
Body's ultimate control and info processing center
2/3 hidden in fold
Tops of folds called gyri
Depths of folds called sulci
Tops of cerebral cortex folds
Depths/Depressions of cerebral cortex folds
Length of Brain
An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.
The area at the front of the parietal lobes that controls voluntary movement.
Controls language expression
Controls language recetion
Types of Bisecting Planes
Divides brain into left and right
Divides brain in front and back
Same as anterior or ventral
Same as posterior or dorsal
Divides brain by top(superior) and bottom(inferior)
Towards midline, center
"In the distance" outside
Any amount of energy to which a cell responds
The stimulus coming in
The interpretation of the sense
Sense of body parts and location of them in space.
Fluid, located in the inner ear, stimulates small hairs that then send messages to the brain.
Minimum amount of energy needed to detect a stimuli.
Minimum amount of change needed in a stimuli to detect the change.
The bigger the stimulus, the bigger the change is needed in order to detect the change.
Most studied sense
Signal Detection Theory
Predicts when we will detect weak signals.
Signals below our threshold that are unconsciouly sensed.
The activation of certain associations, predisposing perception.
The diminishing sesitivity to an unchanging stimulus.
What determines the ability to detect a stimulus:
Level of Alertness
The principle that one sense may influence another
Awareness focuses on only a limited aspect of all we experience.
Bottom Uo Processing
New sensations come to the brain and are analyzed.
Context and what we already know is used to analyze a sensation.
Two adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession and we perceive a single light moving back and forth between them.
Enables us to perceive an object as unchanged despite a changing stimulus.
Types of ESP
Communication between two minds
Perceiving remote events
Perceiving future events
The ability to move matter with the mind.
Each eye sees a slightly different image
When the brain combines the images from both eyes and puts them together into one image.
Turns the eye to a near object and computes the angle.
If one object blocks another, it is perceived as closer.
Predator v. Prey
Predators have better depth perception and prey has better peripheral vision.
Small, adjustable hole through which light passes
The muscle surrounding the pupil that regulates the size of the pupil and how much light enters
Focuses incoming rays into a n image on the eye's back surface.
A multi-layer tissue that Controls light receptor cells
Assist with seeing at night/seeing light
Men have more
Create more distinct colors
Women have more
The retina's area of central focus where cones cluster around.
Network of cells that transfer light to the brain
Spot where the optic nerve leaves the eye and there are no receptor cells.
Image on Retina
Upside down and backwards
The image viewed
The image formed on the retina.
The process in which the lens changes its curvature to focus light into an image.
Opponent Process Theory
After visual information leaves receptor cells, it is analyzed in terms of the opposite color.
Color After Images/Color Complements
Principles of Perceptual Organization
Sees things that are the same as belonging together
Sees things as close together as belonging together.
See things that are connected as being together
See something as being continuous
Fill in the gaps. Even when you can't see something you assume it's there.
Figure & Ground
Figure is what you see in the front (focused)
Ground is what is in the background and behind the figure
Is a chemical sense
Processed by temporal lobe
Olfactory Receptor Cells
Phantom Limb Pain
Someone without a limb can feel pain or sensation in it because the brain anticipates it will be getting information from the limb.
Unit for measuring sound energy
The Hearing Process
Outer ear channels sound waves into the eardrum.
The middle ear transmits vibrations through a piston to the cochlea.
Causes the membrane to vibrate, which moves the fluid in the tubes.
Moves hair cells and triggers impulses in nerve cells.
5 Taste Receptors
Factors that Influence Taste
The four systems of communication
Signs, pictures, diagrams
Music notes, math equations, computer programs
Spoken, written, signed, or sung word
Body movements (posture, gestures, smile, eye contact) and tone, hesitation, volume
4 Aspects of Verbal Communication
Rhythm of voice
Inflection (rise/fall) of your voice (pitch, tone, volume)
Pace of voice
Emphasis on words
The distance people keep between themselves and others
Dr. Edward Hall
Introduced idea of proxemics
Greater than 12 feet
Business conducted here
18 inches - 4 feet
18 inches - 0
Closed off body position
crossed legs, crossed arms, hiding hands
When you see something you want you pupils get bigger/ if you find someone attractive.
Your pupils get smaller when you are angry. Is to let in more light.
Aspects of Eye Contact
Speaker vs. Listener
Aspects of Attractiveness
Juries & defendants
90% of them is visual
Made in 3-4 seconds
1st Impression factors you control
82% of people will jay walk if a guy in a suit is doing it
First Date colors
Black to serious
Red to racy
Wear navy blue
Meet the Parents
Wear white or pink
Orange stimulates appetite
Teal/Blue/Green makes you less hungry
Reassures the speaker they are listening.
"Checks-in" during conversation
About feelings NOT judgements
I feel _ when you _
Individual + Situation
Adlerian Behavior Model
Adlerian Behavior Model
Mix and Match:
Implicit Personality Theory
Our own set of assumptions about how people behave and what traits or characteristics go together.
An exaggerated set of assumptions about an unidentifiable group of people.
An analysis of how we interpret and understand other people's behavior.
Personal characteristics of a person at the time of an occurring event.
The situations/environment at the time of the occurring event.
Fundamental Attribution Error
Giving to much credit to the personal or situational factors of an event.
Explanation of your own behavior that keeps self-esteem high.
What you see in a conversation depends on you opinions of that person from that angle.
Factors that Inhibit Group Response
Diffusion of responsibility
Alone or not
Factors before someone will aid another
Interpret as an emergency
A phenomenon that says people do better in their performance under the pressure of others.
Doesn't work if you working on the same task with the person.
The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort towards attaining a common goal, then when individually accountable.
The unselfish regard for the welfare of others
That one acts to reduce the discomfort they feel when 2 of out thoughts are inconsistent.
task leaders & social leaders
Features of a Group
Interdependence, shared goals and communication
Purpose of groups
Get a job done (task function
Fill emotional need (social function)
Norms, ideology, commitment and participation
Characteristics of a leader
Embody norms, adjusted, self-confident, outgoing, energetic and intelligent
Common ideas, attitudes and goals
Technique used to analyze groups
Requires personal sacrifice
Personal sacrifice, participation, and supportive managers
Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
annual cycles, happen once a year
ex. geese migration
a biological clock that roughly synchronizes with the 24-hour cycle of day and night. It dictates when to sleep, wake and correlating body temperatures and moods.
Rapid eye movement. Occurs when one is dreaming.
25% of sleep time
Adrenaline & sex hormones secreted
easy to wake up from
alpha waves (twitches)
Breathing and heart rate slow
Blood temp and pressure drop
Sleep walking, talking
Irritable and trouble concentrating
Staying n REM for a long time
A split in consciousness that allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
inability to stay asleep or fall asleep
Bad dreams that occur during REM
Occur is 3&4.
We have learned to sleep at night
Breathing stops for a minute or so
Decreased blood oxygen makes sleeper wake up
Can repeat 400 times a night
Mostly happens to overweight men
Activation Synthesis Theory
McCarley and Hobson
Dreams are physiological
Brain trying to make sense of splats of information it releases while sleeping
Dreams are psychological
Shoes ones desires
Being able to control the outcome of you dreams
Have to be aware it's a dream
3-4: little snipets
5-6: motion picture
7-8: become character in own dreams
8-9: Dreams become like they are now
Actual dream itself. What happened as it occurred.
Explanation/analysis of manifest content
Perspectives of meaning of dreams
Before Stage 1. Feels like a dream
REM Behavior Disorder
Violently acting out dreams
To much sleep
Sleep paralysis after sleep
Leg twitches in sleep
Anything that could go wrong with sleep
in stage 1
in stages 3&4
Founders of Hypnosis
Franz Mesmer and James Braid
Uses of hypnosis
Stop bad habits
Is a type of sleep
Suggestion made during hypnosis to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized.
Chemicals that change perception and moods
Psychologically need of drug (Think you need it)
Physiological need of drug (body craves it)
Become used to drugs affect
Not to much of the drug, but where they took it is different them usual
Drugs that slow bodily functions. Calm neural activity
Tranquilizers. Mimic the affects of alcohol
Take away pain and anxiety.
Found in morphine and heroin.
Drugs that excite neural activity and speed up bodily functions.
Drugs that stimulate neural activity. Causes energy and mood changes
Psychedelic drugs which distort perception and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.
People who believe the mind and body are interacting but distinct entities.
Deny the separation of body an mind. Think they are different aspects of the same thing.
A relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience.
A stimulus with doesn't cause any particular response
A stimulus that naturally triggers a response
The natural occurring response tot he US
An originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with an US comes to trigger a CR.
The learned response to a previously neutral stimulus.
Period of time when the stimulus comes to evoke the CR.
Father of operant conditioning
Learning from consequences
Increase behavior by presenting a positive stimuli. Encourages as response by giving a reward after te response.
Encourages behavior by removing unpleasant stumuli.
Remove positive stimuli
Throndike's Law of Effect
Principle that behavior followed by favorable consequences becomes more likely, and behavior followed by unfavorable consequences becomes less likely.
The hopeless of passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
Shocked harnessed dogs
Behavior causes unpleasant event to stop.
Behavior prevents unpleasant event.
Things necessary for survival
Secondary Reinforcers (Conditioned Reinforcer)
A stimulus that gets its reinforcing powers through association with a primary reinforcer
Procedure which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
Schedules of Reinforcement
Plans to encourage behavior
Fixed (set, known)
Ratio (quantity, number)
Interval (duration of time)
The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.
Duplication of a behavior you see
Therapist expose them to things they're afraid of.
Bobo doll experiment
When you avoid a food that has previously made you ill.
Diminishing a conditioned response
Tendency for a stimulus similar to the conditioned response to elicit similar responses.
The learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimuli.
Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
What brain pays attention to
Strange & unusual
You choose what to pay attention to.
Remember details of things
Serial Position Effect
People remember the first and last things in a list
Getting information into the brain
Ways to help remember
Make a story
Self Reference Effect
When people remember facts pertaining to themselves better than facts pertaining to others. Helps with learning by trying to find personal meaning in what you study.
Memory of information last as long as you need it, then it is gone. Instantaneous
Photographic or picture-image memory. Lasts about a tenth of a second
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
Short Term Memory
Can increase length of memory storage through rehearsal and chunking.
Memories that can be talked about.
The understanding of words and meanings
The memory for events in life.
There's a particular order
Driving clutch, riding bike, typing
Ready for something (have one sill that helps you learn another)
Training that becomes automatic
Filling in the gaps in memories
The basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety from consciousness.
Stress hormones can fuel brain activity and make certain memories stand out. The can also disrupt memory for neutral events around the same time.
The loss of memory
Ability to identify something when you see it
Ability to pull information from your head without a reminder
ex. ROY G. BIV
The composition of a few broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrow concepts and facts
When the knowledge of one thing makes learning another easier.
Old memories/knowledge makes it difficult to learn a new thing.
When a new memory makes it difficult to recall old memories.