American history

  1. George Washington
    Federalist leader who become president of the US
  2. William Pitt
    British Prime Minister during the French and Indian war who persuaded parliment to raise taxes and burrow money to fight the war
  3. King George III
    British Monarch during the American Revolution
  4. George Grenville
    Prime Minister of Great Britian who ignored the colonists intrests and believed the colonies should pay some of the costs for their own defense
  5. Johann Gutenberg
    invention of the printing press put books into circulation creating a printing revolution
  6. Samuel Adams
    Bostonian who led the sons of liberty
  7. Prince Henry the Navigator
    ruler who initiated Portugals exploration and developed a school to train sailors
  8. Israel Bissel
    Warned the colonists from Boston to Philidelphia before the battles of Lexington and Concord
  9. Thomas Paine
    Writer of Common Sense and Crisis during the American Revolution
  10. Ethan Allen
    leader of the Green Mountain Boys who defeated the british at Fort Tichonderoga
  11. General Gage
    British general who won at the Battle of Bunker Hill
  12. Henry Knok
    one of Washingtons top generals who becam Secratary of War
  13. General Howe
    British General who was victorious during the Battle of Long Island with the help of the Hessians
  14. Nathan Hale
    American spy who was caught by the British and executed for treason
  15. Henry Hudson
    Dutch & British explorer who discovered the Hudson Bay
  16. John Smith
    British explorer who saved the colony of Jamestown with his leadership
  17. Thomas Hooker
    Prime minister who founded the colony of Conecticut during the 1630's
  18. John Wheelwright
    founder of New Hampshire who disagreed with Puritan religios matters
  19. Peter Minuit
    director of the Dutch colony of New Netherlands
  20. William Penn
    colony practiced religious toleration while welcoming non-quakers and living peacefully with Native Americans
  21. James Oglethorpe
    Founder of Georgia who wanted a haven for people who were in prison in England who couldn't pay their debt
  22. King James II of England
    created the dominion of New England in 1686 and abolished the colonial legislatures
  23. Jonathan Edwards
    leader of the great awakening and minister form Northampton, Massachusetts
  24. James Otis
    lawyer from Massachusettes was the main organizer of the Stamp Act Congress
  25. Paul Revere
    Warned American colonists from Boston to Cambridge that the British were invading
  26. Thomas Jefferson
    writer of the declaration of independence and secratary of state
  27. General Cornwallis
    British general who lost the battles of Trenton & and Yorktown to George Washington
  28. John Burgoyne
    British General who was defeated at the Battle of Saratoga
  29. Horatio Gates
    American general who was victorious at the Battle of Saratoga
  30. Frederich Von Stueben
    German General who trained the Americans during the American Revolution
  31. George Rogers Clark
    American General who captured the British forts in illinois and Indiana
  32. James Madison
    36 year old bachelor from Virginia who is known as "the father of the constition"
  33. Alexander Hamilton
    Member of the Nationalists who later became Secratary of Treasury
  34. Daniel Shays
    Massachusetts farmer who led a rebellion because of high taxes
  35. Edmund Randolph
    creator of the Virginia Plan who who became the Attorney General
  36. William Patterson
    creator of the New Jersey Plan
  37. John Adams
    first vice president of the United States
  38. John Cabot
    Italian sailor who landed in Newfoundland, Canada
  39. Sir Francis Drake
    most famous British privateer who was the first British sailor to circumnavigate the glove and reach San Francisco
  40. John Rolfe
    traded tobacco with europe while living in Jamestown
  41. William Bradford
    governer of Plymouth colony
  42. Roger Williams
    founder of Providence after being banished from Massachusetts
  43. Anne Hutchison
    banished from MAsssachusetts during the Salem Witch Trials
  44. Duke of York
    acquired or conquered Ny and NJ
  45. George Calvert
    converted catholic who came to Maryland
  46. Oliver Cromwell
    Ruler of England until 1659
  47. Benjamen Franklin
    American Diplomat who was greatly invloved in our independence
  48. The Renaissance
    an era of creativity and rapid change that began in Italy
  49. Bacon's Rebellion
    private army which was formed in 1676 to fight the Native Americans invading their lands
  50. Salem Witch Trials
    trials that were held to determine if the accused townspeople were really witches
  51. Glorious Revolution
    When James II was dethroned and William of Orange and Mary became rulers
  52. Great Awakening
    religious movement led by Jonathan Edwards
  53. French and Indian War
    war fought between the British and the French along with their Native American Allies
  54. Albany Plan of Union
    Colonial legislatures rejected it after legislatures approved it
  55. Battle of Quebec
    colonial victory during the French and Indian War led by James Wolfe
  56. Pontiac's Rebellion
    Native American uprising that destroyed every British fort West of of the Applacians except Detroit and Pitt
  57. Stamp Act Congress
    occuring during 1765 in New York with delegates form nine colonies
  58. Boston Tea Party
    December 16, 1773 colonists dressed as indians boarded three ships and trew the Tea in the Boston Harbor
  59. Battle of Bunker Hill
    Brisitch Victory after three attempt by General Gage
  60. Battle of Saratoga
    American Victory that was the turning point of the Revolution
  61. Shay's Rebellion
    grew out of protest against strong government under Articles of Confederation
  62. Development of Education
    Three colleges emerged; Harvad, Yale, and William and Mary
  63. Treaty of Paris (1763)
    • -England
    • -recieved present day Canada
    • -All lands east of the Mississippi
    • (except New Orleans)
    • -Returned Cuba to Spain in exchange
  64. Common Sense
    a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine
  65. Declaration of Independence
    • consists of
    • 1. Preamble
    • 2. Declaration of Rights
    • 3. List of Complaints against the King
    • 4. Resolution of independence
  66. Treaty of Paris (1783)
    • Six Major Provisions of the Treaty:
    • Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States.
    • Northern border between the U.S. and British Canada was set from New England to the Mississippi River.
    • The Mississippi River was established as a border between the U.S. and Spanish territory.
    • Florida was returned to Spain by England.
    • Great Britain agreed to withdraw its remaining troops from U.S. territory.
    • Congress pledged to recommend to the states that the rights and property of American Loyalists be restored and no future actions would be takes against them.
  67. Virginia Plan
    Called for a bicameral (two house), national legislature. Each state would send representatives in proportion to the population.
  68. New Jersey Plan
    Give Congress the power to tax & to regulate foreign & state commerce.It would create executive & judicial branches.It would give every state an equal vote in a unicameral Congress.
  69. 3/5 Comprimise
    3/5's of a states slave population would be counted when determining representation
  70. President of the United States (qualifications)
    • • Be a natural born citizen
    • • Be at least 35 years old.
    • • Been a permanent resident in the United States for at least 14 years.
  71. House of Representatives (qualifications)
    • • Must be at least 25 years old.
    • • Must be a citizen for the past 7 years.
    • • Must be an inhabitant of the he/she state represents
  72. Senate (qualifications)
    • • Must be at least 30 years old.
    • • Must be a citizen for at least the past 9 years.
    • • Must be an inhabitant of the state he/she represents
  73. Fort Necessity
    colonial fort built by George Washington in western Pennsylvania.
  74. Quebec
    location of two battles, one in the French & Indian War and second in American Revolution.
  75. Apprentices
    Persons placed under a legal contract to work for another person in exchange for learning a trade
  76. Almanac
    is a book containing information such as calendars, weather predictions, wise sayings, and advice.
  77. Indigo
    a type of plant used in making blue dye for cloth.
  78. Self-sufficient
    able to make everything needed to maintain itself.
  79. Middle Passage
    trip in which the African slaves were brought to America from Africa.
  80. immigrant
    people who enter a new country to settle.
  81. Dissent
    difference of opinion or belief
  82. Militia
    armed citizens who serve as soldiers during an emergency.
  83. Sons of Liberty
    Groups that began to pop up all around the colonies boycotting British goods.
  84. Preamble
  85. Natural Rights
    rights that belong to them simply because they are human, not because kings or government granted them these rights.
  86. Colony
    an area of land settled by immigrants who continue to be ruled by their parent country.
  87. Hessians
    German soldiers who fought for pay.
  88. Profiteering
    selling scarce items at unreasonably higher prices.
  89. Patriotism
    love of country
  90. Constitution
    a plan of government that describes the different parts of the government and their duties and powers.
  91. Privateers
    privately owned ship hired by a government to attack enemy ships
  92. Federal system of government
    a system in which power is shared among state and national authorities.
  93. Royal Government
    form of government with a governor appointed by the king.
  94. Faction
    a group that is concerned only with its own interests
  95. Triangular Trade
    trade between the Americas, Europe and Africa
  96. Inauguration
    official swearing-in ceremony
  97. Cabinet
    officials to head the major departments of the executive branch.
  98. Domestic Affairs
    country’s internal matters, as opposed to foreign issues.
  99. Administration
    term of office
  100. Precedent
    is an act or statement that becomes an example, rule, or tradition to be followed.
  101. Mutiny
    revolt against a superior authority.
  102. Itinerant
    traveling from place to place; or on a circuit.
  103. Reformation
    revolt against the Catholic Church that began in 1517.
  104. Boycott
    a refusal to buy certain products or use certain services as an act of protest
  105. Enlightenment
    18th century European movement that emphasized science and reason as keys to improving society.
  106. Plantations
    large farming operations that produced crops not for their own but for sale.
  107. Rule of Law
    public officials must make decisions based on the law, not on their own personal wishes.
  108. Loyalists
    people who remained loyal to Great Britain
  109. Blockade -
    cut off from outside contact
  110. Inflation
    a steady increase in prices over time.
  111. legislative branch
    One branch of government (Congress) responsible for making the laws
  112. Democracy
    a government by the people
  113. Republic
    a government run by the people through their elected representatives.
  114. separation of powers
    Each branch has its own area of authority, but no one branch has complete power over the government.
  115. Proprietary Government
    a colony granted by a king or queen to an individual or group who had full governing rights.
  116. Salutary Neglect
    Great Britain’s policy in the early 1700s of not interfering in the American colonies’ politics and economy as long as such neglect served British economic interests.
  117. Bill of Rights
    first 10 amendments of the Constitution
  118. Charter
    certificate of permission from the king.
  119. Specie
    gold or silver coin
  120. Joint-stock company
    a company funded and run by a group of investors who share the company’s profits and losses.
  121. Amend
    to revise
  122. Legislature
    lawmaking assembly
  123. Veto
    to disallow an act of a state legislature.
  124. House of Burgesses
    name given to the Virginia legislature because the representatives were called burgesses
  125. executive branch
    executes or puts into action, the laws passed by Congress.
  126. Indentured Servants
    person who had to work for a master for a period of time, usually seven years.
  127. judicial branch
    made up of the courts & judges who interpret & apply the laws in cases brought before them
  128. Synagogue
    house of Jewish worship on the North American continent
  129. Proprietary colony
    a colony granted by a king or queen to an individual or group who had full governing rights.
  130. Quakers
    members of a Protestant group that had suffered persecution in England
  131. Haven
    safe place for people of every faith
  132. Electoral College
    group of electors
  133. Ratify
    approve it, to become law.
  134. Federalists
    those who favored the Constitution
  135. checks and balances
    Gives each branch the power to stop, the other branches in certain ways.
  136. Charter Government
    form of government where a certificate of permission has to be given by a government.
  137. Anti-Federalists
    those who opposed the Constitution
  138. Gentry
    men and women wealthy enough to hire others to do work for them
Card Set
American history
AM History I. Midterm