Senses and Perception

  1. any amount of energy to which a cell responds
  2. the stimuli coming in
  3. how a sensation is interpreted
  4. Psychophysics
    study of how physical energy relates to the psychological experience
  5. study of how physical energy relates to the psychological experience
  6. 5 obvious senses
    • taste
    • smell
    • touch
    • sight
    • hear
  7. two other senses
    • kinisthesis
    • vestibular
  8. Sense of location of different body parts
  9. Controls balance
    located in inner ear that stimulates small hairs that send messages to the brain
  10. Relay station for sensory information
  11. Absolute threshold
    the minimum stimulation necessary to detect a phenomenon 50% of the time
  12. Signal Detection Theory
    predicts when we will detect weak signals
  13. Subliminal
    signals below our threshold that are unconsciously sensed
  14. priming
    the activation of certain associations

    predisposing perception
  15. Webers Law
    the bigger the stimulus the bigger the change there needs to be to detect a change
  16. Difference Threshold
    the minimum amount of change needed to detect a change has occured
  17. Sensory Adaptation
    the diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus
  18. What determines the ability to detect a stimulus?
    • experiences
    • expectation
    • motivation
    • level of alertness
  19. Sensory interaction
    the principle that one sense may influence another
  20. Selective Attention
    awareness focuses on only a limited aspect of all we experience
  21. Bottom up processing
    new sensations come to the brain and are analyzed
  22. Top down processing
    context and what we already know is used to analyze a sensation
  23. Phi Phenomenon
    two adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succesion and we perceive a single light moving back and forth between them
  24. Perceptual constancy
    enables us to perceive an object as unchanging despite a changing stimulus
  25. Four types of perceptual constancy
    • shape
    • size
    • color
    • light

  26. ESP: Extrasensory Perception
    • Telepathy
    • Clairvoyance
    • Precognition
  27. Clairvoyance
    perceiving remote events
  28. Precognition
    perceiving future events
  29. Psychokinesis
    the ability to move matter with mind
  30. Each eye sees a different image
    Retinal Disparity
  31. Depth perception
    Stereoscopic Vision
  32. When the images from each eye are put together into one image
    binocular fusion
  33. How do we perceive depth?
    • the brain computes the retinal disparities of both eyes
    • convergence
    • monocular cues
  34. Convergence
    turns the eye to a near object and computes the angle
  35. monocular cues
    • relative size
    • interposition: if one object blocks another it is perceived as closer
  36. Small adjustable opening through which light enters
  37. the muscle surrounding the pupil that regulates the size of the pupil and how much light enters
  38. focuses incoming rays into an image on the eye's back surface
  39. A multi layered tissue that is light sensitive on which rays focus light
  40. Assist with sight in dim light
    • Rods
    • men
  41. Create more distinct sight of colors
    • Cones
    • women
  42. The retinas area of central focus where cones cluster around
  43. Network of cells that converge to carry information to the occipital love in the brain
    Optic Nerve
  44. The spot where the optic nerve leaves the eye and there is no receptor cells
    Blind Spot
  45. Distal stimulus
    image viewed
  46. Proximal Stimulus
    image formed on retina
  47. Accomodation
    the process in which the lens changes its curvature to focus light into an image
  48. Opponent Process Theory
    After visual information leaves receptor cells, it is analyzed in terms of the opposite colors
  49. Principles of Perceptual Organization
    • Gestalts
    • Figure and Ground
  50. Gestalts Principles:
    • Similarity
    • Proximity
    • Connectedness
    • Continuity
    • Closure

  51. Figure and Ground
    • Figure: What is in front and focused on
    • Ground: What is in the background and behind figure
  52. Smell Receptors
    olfactory receptor cells
  53. Touch Receptors
    • Pressure
    • Pain
    • Heat
    • Cold

  54. What is the hearing process?
    • 1. outer ear channels sound waves into eardrum
    • 2. the middler ear transmits vibrations through a piston
    • 3. causes the membrane to vibrate which moves the fluid in the tubes
    • 4. moves hair cells which triggers impulses in nerve cells
  55. 5 Taste Receptors
    • Salty
    • Sweet
    • Bitter
    • Sour
    • Umani:meat

Card Set
Senses and Perception
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