What is the difference between a unipolar mood disorder and bipolar mood disorder?
unipolar: depression or mania alone, typically depression; bipolar: depression and mania, mixed episodes
State the Five Sex Theory.
Males, Females, Hermaphrodites, merms, Ferms
What does an actigraph measure?
it measures human rest/activity cycles
According to National Geographic:The Evil of Science video we watch in class, what parts of the brain decides on your moral judgments? How do they systematically signal the rest of the brain to respond to certain stimuli?
Dorso lateral prefrontal cortex, Medial prefrontal cortex, Posterior cingulate cortex; Medial Prefrontal cortex can act of the amygdala using GABA (GABA is inhibitory). The amygdala can then act on the locus cirillius which will activate NE
When do panic attacks tend to occur most often?
You are more likely to have an attack where you have had one before, or unexpectedly.
Symptoms of severe depression are generally not considered a psychological disorder when they are associated with:
A grief reaction
What did Freud say causes anxiety?
psychic reaction to danger
What are the four major categories of compulsions?
Checking, Ordering, Arranging, Washing/cleaning
What does hypertension increase the risk for?
Stroke, Heart disease, kidney disease
What does �overly-successful� weight loss mean according to the DSM?
15% below expected weight
What does the �exotic becomes erotic� theory say about the development of sexual orientation?
The theory states that we inherit a temperament to behave in certain ways and that later we interact with environmental factors to cause sexual orientation.
Is Anxiety good or bad in your life, give a short explanation why or why not? Also, give a few examples.
some anxiety is good because we perform better when we have a moderate amount of anxiety, such as preparing for an exam. However too much anxiety can be bad, for example not concetrating on an exam because you're so anxious.
Define Panic Attacks and explain the three basic types of panic attacks and its symptoms.
Panic attacks �abrupt experience of intense fear; 3 types: Situationally-bound/cued: there�s something that�s cuing the attack; common in people suffering from a phobia, Unexpected/uncued: it just occurs without warning; common in people suffering from a panic disorder, Situationally predisposed: panic that may or not occur in a given setting; in between situationally-bound and unexpected; symptoms include: palpitations, chest pain, dizziness
Bulimia seems strongly related to ______________.
Medical consequences such as Salivary gland enlargement, erosion of dental enamel, electrolyte imbalance, kidney failure, cardiac arrhythmia, intestinal problems and colon damage are consequences of which type of disorder?
What are the causes of Mood Disorders? Explain how mood disorder affects people�s life.
social, biological, psychological;
What is the difference between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder?
Bipolar I: Alternating major depressive and manic episodes, bipolar II: Alternating major depressive and hypomanic episodes
Describe the triple vulnerability theory for anxiety and related disorders.
The Smiths have sleeping problems. Susan has problems staying awake throughout the day, no matter what she is doing. She also often loses muscle tone and falls asleep for a while. John, on the other hand, is terrified to sleep because sometimes when he awakens, he cannot move or speak. Susan seems to be suffering from _____ and John seems to have _______.
Narcolepsy; sleep paralysis
Describe the two sexual arousal disorders
Male Erectile Disorder: Difficulty achieving and maintaining an erection, Female Sexual Arousal Disorder: Difficulty achieving and maintaining adequate lubrication
List and explain the different types of T cells.
Killer T Cells: destroys viral infections and cancerous processes. Helper T Cells: they enhance the immune system response by signaling B cells to produce antibodies and telling other T cells to destroy the antigen. Suppressor T Cells: suppress the production of antibodies by B cells when they are no longer needed. Memory T Cells: speed future responses to the same antigen
List and explain the different phases for Stress Response and General Adaptation Syndrome.
Phase 1 � Alarm response: response to immediate danger or threat, Phase 2 � Resistance: in which we mobilize different coping mechanisms to respond to the stress, Phase 3 � Exhaustion: in which our bodies suffer permanent damage or death.
What are the differences between Fear and Anxiety?
Fear is immediate, present- oriented and the symapthetic nervous system activates. Anxiety is apprehensive, future-oriented, causes tentsion which is a somatic symptom
What are the four causes of eating disorders?
Social dimensions, family influences, biological dimensions, psychological dimensions.
What is the difference between specific and social phobias?
Specific: extreme and irrational fear of a specific object or situation, avoidance, recognizes fears as unreasonable. Social: extreme and irrational fear/ shyness in social/ performance situations, avoidance or distressed endurance, generalized subtype. Both cause significant impairment
What is the behavioral inhibition system?
Brain circuit in the limbic system that responds to threat signals by inhibiting activity and causing anxiety.
List the types of suicides
Altruistic: suicide in order to avoid dishonor to family, Egoistic: preserve ego, Anomic: avoiding a situation, Fatalistic: to avoid a particular fate (ie. cults)
What are the core symptoms of depression?
Anhedonia, slowing, Negative cognitions
The four major subtypes of specific phobia, list them and explains what they are.
Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia: Unreasonable fear and avoidance of exposure to blood, injury, or the possibility of an injection. Victims experience fainting and a drop in blood pressure. Situational Phobia: Anxiety involving enclosed places (for example, claustrophobia) or public transportation (for example, fear of flying). Natural Environmental Phobia: Fear of situations or events in nature, especially heights, storms, and water. Animal Phobia: Unreasonable, enduring fear of animals or insects that usually develops early in life.
Immune system consists of two main parts and explain what their role.
leukocytes: white blood cells, include B Cells (immunoglobulins- antibodies, and memory) and T Cells (killer, helper, suppressor and memory), macrophages: surround identifiable antigens and destroy them
What's Jellinek's model and what's involving the following four stages?
prealcoholic stage (drinking occasionally with few serious consequences), prodromal stage (drinking heavily but with few outward signs of a problem), crucial stage (loss of control, with occassional binges), chronic stage (the primary daily activities involve getting and drinking alcohol).
Billy has a room full of old things. He is very scared to throw them away even though they are useless. He says he might need them in the future. This is an example of:
What is Aaron Beck�s theory on depression?
The tendency to think negatively causes depression
What is the chief characteristic that both bulimia and anorexia nervosa have in common?
To be thin
What is the difference between dyssomnias and parasomnias?
Dyssomnia is a disturbance in the amount, timing, or quality of sleep; parasomnia is the strange occurrence during sleep.
What is the difference in the rating of suicide among men and women and why?
Men successfully commit suicide more often than women but women attempt suicide about 3 times as much as men. This is probably because women are more depressed than men and also men tend to choose more violent ways of attempting suicide.
Name the three activation systems that make up the biology of stress?
SNS activation, HPA axis activation, limbic system activation.
Explain the difference between the ranges of emotions of a bipolar person compared to normal person.
Bipolar I is the alteration between major depressive episodes and full manic episodes. Bipolar II is the aleration of major depressive episodes and hypomanic episodes. Normal people do not experience these emotions as extremely.
What is the criteria for a person to undergo sex- reassignment surgery?
1-2 years in opposite sex role
The Immune system branches are __________________ and ___________________.
Danger signals in response to something we see that might be threatening descent from the A.______, to the B._____________. The BIS also receives a big boost from the C.________.
amygdala, Fright/flight system, septal-hippocampal system
Matt is hesitant to go out with his friends to the movies, bars and festivals because he feels overwhelmed and might experience anxiety.
Its a panic disorder and situationally predisposed
A person with dysthymic disorder differs from other major depressive disorders because.
it is chronic and persistent
Benzodiazepine medications are not recommended for long term use for the treatment of insomnia because.
Excessive sleepiness that may persist during the day, The addictive properties of the medication, The reoccurrence of insomnia once off the medication
Which brain system is mainly associated with anxiety disorders?
Name at least 3 ways of assessing sleep disorders.
What is known as the "King of Fear" and triggers the fight or flight response?
Describe the difference between Anorexia and Bulimia and a negative effect of each.
anorexia: lack of eating, negative effects include: Amenorrhea, Dry skin, Brittle hair and nails, Sensitivity to cold temps, Lanugo, Cardiovascular problems, Electrolyte imbalance, Bulimia: binge eating with purging, negative effects include: alivary gland enlargement, Erosion of dental enamel, Electrolyte imbalance, Kidney failure, Cardiac arrhythmia, Seizures, Intestinal problems, Permanent colon damage
Is obesity considered a psychological disorder in the DSM? Briefly explain why it is or why it isn�t.
No, because there is no psychological cause for it.
What is Gender identity disorder and what is a treatment for it?
Feels trapped in the body of the wrong sex, Assumes identity of the desired sex; Sex-reassignment surgery and psychosocial treatment
Which area of the brain most often associated with anxiety?
How do B cells help the immune system?
operate within the humoral part of the system and produce antibodies
Valproate is the treatment for
Taijin kyofusho is a phobia of ____________ which is this type of ____________ phobia.
A major depressive disorder normally lasts
4-5 months reoccurrent 4 episodes in your lifetime
What is the biggest eating disorder among North Americans?
According to the DSM- IV what is the difference between diagnosis of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa?
Anorexia: 15% below expected weight (in DSM), Intense fears of gaining weight of Losing control of eating, Relentless pursuit of thinness, Often begins with dieting; Bulimia: Binge eating-Excess amounts of food, Perceived as �out of control�, Compensatory behaviors including Purging, Excessive exercise, Fasting, Belief that popularity and self-esteem are determined by weight and body shape
List and describe the three depressive attributional styles.
Internal: individual attributes negative events to personal failings, stable: even after a particular negative event passes, the attribution that "additional bad things will always be my fault" remains, global: the attributions extend across a variety of issues.
There are three specifiers that describe different courses recurrent mania or depression may take. What are they?
Olga has recently become disgusted and panicked at the thought of having sex with her husband, Dudley. Even the thought of him touching her brought on feelings of fear. She doesn't know why. Olga is most likely suffering from ______________________.
Sexual Aversion Disorder
Name three types of paraphilia and describe one method a therapist may use to treat it.
Fetishism, Voyeurism, Exhibitionism, Transvestic fetishism, Sexual sadism and masochism, Pedophilia; Psychosocial Interventions: Behavioral, Target deviant and inappropriate sexual associations, Covert sensitization, Orgasmic reconditioning, Family/marital therapy, Coping, Relapse prevention
What is a main difference that separates depression from anxiety?
core symptoms of depression: negative cognitions
What is an SSRI and what is its main function?
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors such as prozac (fluozetine), it is used as an antidepressant
What is characteristic of persons with GAD? How does this differ from other anxiety disorders?
Excessive apprehension and worry, Uncontrollable, Strong, persistent anxiety, Somatic symptoms (e.g., muscle tension, fatigue, mental agitation), 6 months or more, Shift from possible crisis to crisis, Worry about minor, everyday concerns (Job, family, chores, appointments), Problems sleeping. what they worry about differs and how much they worry.
What is the suicide attempt rate?
List and describe two causes and two treatments of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
Trauma intensity, Generalized biological vulnerability, Generalized psychological vulnerability, Uncontrollability and unpredictability, Social support, neurobiological model; treatments: Cognitive-behavioral treatment: Exposure, Imaginal, Graduated or massed, Increase positive coping skills, Increase social support, Medications-SSRIs
How many percent of people with AIDS survive more than 5 years after being diagnosed?
Grandiosity and racing thoughts are symptoms of _________, and __________.
If phobias are often about objects, and obsessions are about thoughts, then panic disorders can be said to be about _______________.
Explain a serious problem with chemical models of depression.
underlying causes of depression are left unaddressed; by only looking at brain chemistry you are looking a symptom without looking at how the rest of the body is suppoed to work, which does not result in making helpful medications.
Abnormalities in levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, or serotonin are complicated in___________.
The two-part model of depression claims that the ______________creates the disposition for the disorder, while the _____________ provides the trigger that turns the potential into an actual disorder.
According to a conditioning account of phobias, the feared object acts as a(n)_____________.
A disorder in which anxiety is handled by repetitive and ritualistic acts is called__________.
What will a person with Bulimia Nervosa will most likely do what after eating?
try to purge and get rid out the food they just consumed
True/ false: A person with Anorexia Nervosa usually is never satisfied no matter the weight their weight loss
True/False: People who are narcoleptic may fall asleep for minutes during the day with out preparing to rest ?
What percentage under weight do Anorexic people fall into ?
31%- 50 %
True/False: Do people with learned Helplessness have no chance of being cured?
What are risk factors for suicide?
Family history, Low serotonin levels, Preexisting disorder, Alcohol, Past suicidal behavior, Shameful/humiliating stressor, Suicide publicity and media coverage
What is Coronary Heart Disease and what are 2 risk factors?
blockage of arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle; Stress, anxiety, anger, Poor coping skills, Low social support, Type A Behavior Pattern (including: anger, negative affect, impatience, accelerated speech, motor activity)
What are the biological, psychological, and social/cultural causes of sexual dysfunctions?
neurological diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease, vascular problems such as arterial insufficiency (constricted arteries) and venous leakage (blood flows too quickly for an erection to be maintained), perscription medication, alcohol, distraction, performance anxiety, erotophobia, negative experiences or attitutes associated with sexual interactions, someone no longer feeling attractive
What is the difference between acute and chronic Post Traumatic Stress Disorder?
acute can be diagnosed 1 month after an event occurs. chronic continues for more than 3 months, usually associated with more prominent avoidance behaviors, as well as with the more frequent co-occurence of additional diagnoses, such as social phobia.
Dan explains to a therapist that the reason he doesn�t throw out anything because he feels that if he gets rid of his things he will lose his existence. Which psychological disorder is Dan likely to have?
Give characteristics of Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia (PDA) and Situational Phobia. Explain the similarities and differences between them. (Chapter 5, p. 142, slide 15 &21)
Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia: Unexpected panic attacks, causing Anxiety, worry, or fear of another attack, Persists for 1 month or more, Agoraphobia : Fear or avoidance of situations/events, Avoidance can be persistent, Use and abuse of drugs and alcohol, Interoceptive avoidance; Situational fear: Fear of specific situations such as transportation and small places, No uncued panic attacks, Onset = early to mid 20s
One biological cause for Mood Disorders is Permissive Hypothesis. Explain Permissive Hypothesis, what neurotransmitters are involved and how does it work. (Chapter 7, p.229, slide 17)
permissive hypothesis: theory that neurotransmitter systems contribute to mood irregularities when low serotonin levels permit them to range widely and become unregulated. involves dopamine, norephinephrine, and serotonin.
What activates the pituitary gland?
What effect does an SSRI have on the neurological pathway?
It inhibits the reuptake of seratonin
Describe the difference between the character Monk, and Suzie the mom who wants to avoid all harm which can be caused to her kids, therefore ritualistically will only choose the fifth of an item on a supermarket shelf. How would you diagnose each of these characters?
Monk: OCD; Suzie: specific phobia
What was the main discovery taken from Dr. Zimbardo�s Experiment?
He found that when normal people are put into power they adapted to their roles so much that they could even resort to torture, and the prisoners because passive.
A person with alternating manic and depression episodes which are less severe, but last longer with an onset at around 12-14 years would be diagnosed with?
Bipolar 1 disorder
Charlie usually loves to play hockey, however, recently he has lost all interest and lacks the will to play anymore. This has lasted for over 2 weeks. Charlie is most likely experiencing:
List the 4 reasons that prevalence in women are greater than in men for mood disorders.
sex roles: women are expected to be more passive and dependent whereas men are expected to be independent and assertive, women experience discrimination, sexual harassment, and abuse more than men do, women tend to ruminate more than men about their situation and blame themselves for being depressed, and the value women place on intimate relationships puts them at more risk.
Brefly explain the 3 parts of the Depressive Triad from Beck�s Theory of Depression?
1.The self (i.e., self is worthless) 2.The world/environment (i.e., world is unfair), and 3.The future (i.e., future is hopeless).
Which statements applies to the condition known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD)? A. Persons with SAD have symptoms of decreased sleep and decreased appetite. B. Depression in vulnerable people might be triggered by decreased production of the hormone called melatonin. C. SAD can be treated with 2 hours of exposure to bright light just before going to sleep. D. Individuals may become depressed during the winter and manic during the summer.
Individuals may become depressed during the winter and manic during the summer.
Which of the following statements is true? a. Almost all anxious patients are depressed, but not all depressed patients are anxious b. Almost all patients with social phobia are depressed, but not all depressed patients have social phobia c. Almost all depressed patients are anxious, but not all anxious patients are depressed d. Almost all depressed patients are bipolar, but not all bipolar patients are depressed
Almost all depressed patients are anxious, but not all anxious patients are depressed
1) Manic Episode A. Most common and severe experience of depression, including feelings of worthlessness, disturbances in bodily activities such as sleep, loss of interest, and inability to experience pleasure, persisting at least 2 weeks.
2) Double Depression Episode B. Period of abnormally elevated or irritable mood that may include inflated self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, pressured speech, flight of ideas, agitation, or self-destructive behavior.
3) Major Depressive Episode C. Mood disorder characterized by depression or mania but not both. Most cases involve unipolar depression.
4) Unipolar Mood Disorder D. Mood disorder involving persistently depressed mood, with low self-esteem, withdrawal, pessimism, or despair, present for at least 2 years, with no absence of symptoms for more than 2 months.
5) Dysthymic Disorder E. Severe mood disorder typified by major depressive episodes superimposed over a background of dysthymic disorder.
1) B 2) E 3) A 4) C 5) D
Name the following1.__________ Anxiety focuses on minor everyday events, not one major worry or concern 2.__________ Anxiety is focused on the next panic attack3.__________ Fear of being around others4.__________ Focuses on avoiding thoughts or images of past traumatic experiences 5.__________ Focuses on avoiding frightening or repulsive intrusive thoughts or neutralizing these with compulsions
1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder 2. Panic Disorder without Agoraphobia 3. Social phobia 4. Posttraumatic Stress disorder 5. Obsessive compulsive disorder