1. Ophthalmology
    -is the branch of medicine which deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye.
  2. Ophthalmoscope
    - is an instrument for examining the interior structures of the eye, especially the retina, consisting essentially of a mirror that reflects light into the eye and a central hole through which the eye is examined.
  3. Optic nerve
    - is either of the second pair of cranial nerves that arise from the retina and carry visual information to the thalamus and other parts of the brain.
  4. Blind spot
    - the point in the retina where the optic nerve enters that is devoid of rods and cones and is insensitive to light –also called the optic nerve.
  5. Retina
    -is the nerve layer that lines the back of the eye, senses light, and creates impulses that travel through the optic nerve to the brain.
  6. Rods
    - are photosensitive receptors in the receptors in the retina responsive to faint light, or a type of specialized light-sensitive cell (photoreceptor) in the retina of the eye that provides side vision and the ability to see objects in dim light (night vision).
  7. Cones
    -are the retinal photoreceptors that provide sharp central vision and color vision.
  8. Anterior chamber
    - is the space in the eye that is behind the cornea and in front of the iris.
  9. Posterior chamber
    - is a narrow space in the eye behind the peripheral part of the iris and in front of the suspensory ligament of the lens and the ciliary processes.
  10. Cornea
    - is the transparent part of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil and admits light to the interior.
  11. Lens
    -a curved piece of glass or plastic used singly or combined in eyeglasses or an optical instrument for forming an image.
  12. Pupil
    -the contractile, round aperture in the iris of the eye.
  13. Iris
    -the opaque muscular contractile diaphragm that is suspended in the aqueous humor in front of the lens of the eye, is perforated by the pupil and is continuous peripherally with the ciliary body, has a deeply pigmented posterior surface which excludes the entrance of light except through the pupil and a colored anterior surface which determines the color of the eyes.
  14. Cilliary body
    - is an annular structure on the inner surface of the anterior wall of the eyeball composed largely of the cillary muscle and bearing the cilliary processes.
  15. Sclera
    - is the dense fibrous opaque white outer coat enclosing the eyeball except the part covered by the cornea.
  16. Fovea
    - is a small area of the retina without rods that gives acute vision.
  17. Macula lutea
    - is a small yellowish area lying slightly lateral to the center of the retina that constitutes the region of maximum visual acuity and is made up almost wholly of retinal cones.
  18. Choroid
    - is a vascular membrane containing large branched pigment cells that lies between the retina and the sclera of the eye also called the choroid coat.
  19. Vitreous humor
    - is the clear colorless transparent jelly that fills the eyeball posterior to the lens and is enclosed by a delicate hyaloid membrane.
  20. Lacrimal glands
    - an acinous gland that is about the size and shape of an almond, secretes tears and is situated laterally and superiorly to the bulb of the eye in a shallow depression on the inner surface of the frontal bone, also known as the tear duct.
  21. Rhodopsin
    - is a red photosensitive pigment in the retinal rods that is important in vision in dim light, is quickly bleached by light to a mixture of opsin and retinal, and is regenerated in the dark also called visual purple.
  22. Retinal
    - a yellowish to orange aldehyde derived from vitamin A that in combination with proteins forms the visual pigments of the retinal rods and cones.
  23. Visual acuity
    -is the relative ability of the visual organ to resolve detail.
  24. Accommodation
    - is an adaptation or adjustment of a body part; the automatic adjustment of the eye for seeing at different distances effected chiefly by changes in the convexity of the crystalline lens.
  25. Glaucoma
    - is a disease of the eye marked by increased pressure within the eyeball that can result in damage to the optic disk and gradual loss of vision.
  26. Conjunctivitis
    - is inflammation of the conjunctiva which is the mucus membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyeballs.
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