Biology lab

  1. Characteristics of Animals
    • 1. Eukaryotic
    • 2. Multicellular
    • 3. Heterotrophic
    • 4. No cell walls
    • 5. Cells held together by external structures, proteins and specialized cellular juctions
    • 6. Ingest food and digest internaly
    • 7. Nervous and muscular tissues
    • 8. Most reproduce sexually and the diploid phase of the life cycle predominates
    • 9. Zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula
    • 10. Many have independent larval stages which metamorphose into adults
    • 11. Originated from cologial flaggelated protist.
  2. Differences in Animals
    • 1. Symmetry; radial (parts arranged around a central axis), bilateral (right and left halves are mirror images).
    • 2. Type of body cavity; acoelomate (no cavity, tissue closely pack on one another), pseudolomate (cavity between endoderm and mesoderm), eucoelomate (cavity lined by mesoderm, mesodermal membranes suspend the gut within the body cavity).
    • 3. Number of germ layers during embryo and development of digestive tract; protostomes (blastopore develops into a mouth), deuterostomes (blastopore develops into an anus).
  3. Phyla studied in lab
    • Poriferia: sponges
    • Cnidaria: hydras, jellies, anemonas, corals
    • Platyhelminthes: planarians, tapeworm
    • Annelida: clamworms,earthworms, segmented worms, leeches
    • Mollusca: snails, slugs, clams, squid
    • Arthropoda: crayfish, insects
    • Echinodermata: sea star, sea urchin
    • Chordata: lancelets, mammals, birds, amphibians
  4. 13 Characteristics studied in lab
    • 1. Symmetry: radial, bilateral, or asymmetrical.
    • 2. Tissue organization: number of tissue layers.
    • 3. Body Cavity: acoelomate, psedocoelomate, eucoelomate.
    • 4. Opening in digestive tract: one opening mouth/anus, or "tube within a tube".
    • 5. Circulatory System: open= blood flows through coelomic spaces in tissue and in blood vessels, closed= blood flows though vessels, or none.
    • 6. Habitat: terrestrial or aquatic.
  5. 13 Characteristics studied in lab
    • 7. Organs for respiration: skin, gills, lungs, spiracles and tracheae, cells.
    • 8. Organs of excretion: skin by diffusion, Malpighian tubules, lateral excretory canals, flame cells, nephridia, kidneys, or none.
    • 9. Type of locomotion: swim, crawl, walk, burrow or fly.
    • 10. Support System: hydrostatic skeleton, endoskeleton, or exoskeleton.
    • 11. Segmentation: repetition of similar units or segments.
    • 12. Appendages: organs or parts attached to a trunk or outer body wall.
    • 13. Type of Nervous System: brain and nerve cord, dorsal brain and ventral nerve cord, or none, network of nerve cells, ladderlike nervous syst, ganglia nerves, nerve ring and epidermal nerve net.
  6. Sponges and Hydras
    • Osculum: large opening to the body at one end.
    • Spicules: prevent small animals to enter internal cavity.
    • Spongocoel: central internal cavity
    • Choanocyte or collar cell: cells unique to sponges that line central cavity.
    • Spongin: supportive material consisting of soft proteinaceous susbtance.

    • Hydras have tissue grade meaning that there are only tissues and no organs.
    • Gastrovascular cavity: central internal cavity where extracellular digestion occurs.
    • Gastrodermis: layer of cells lining the gastrovascular cavity where intracellular dig. occurs.
    • Cnidocytes: cell unique to cnidarians.
    • Nematocyst: stinging organelle that when stimulated traps food or sting predotors.
  7. Planarians, clamworms and earthworms
    • Plannarians have ladderlike nervous system.
    • Clamworms have two parapodia (legs) in each segment with setae.
    • Earthworms's anterior end is called prostomium; the clitellum is the structure that secretes a cocoon that holds eggs located closer to mouth.
    • Excretion in clam/earthworms is by organs called nephridia where waste is collected and discharged to the outside through a small pore.
  8. Comparison of Organisms
    1. Tissue Organization: a) distinct tissues absent; sponge. b) distinct tissues present; all other.

    2. Symmetry: a) radial; cnidaria, hydra, sea star. b) bilateral; all others except sponges.

    3. Body Cavity: a) acoelomate; planarian. b) pseudocoelomate; roundworm. c) eucoelomate; all others.

    4. Openings to Digestive tract: a) one; hydra, planarian. b) two; all others.
  9. Comparison of Organisms
    5. Circulatiory System: a) none; sponge, hydra, planarian, roundworm. b) open; clam, crayfish, grasshopper. c) closed; clam/earthworm, lancelet, pig.

    6. Habitat: a) aquatic; sponge, hydra, planarian, clamworm, clam, crayfish, sea star, lancelet. b) terrestrial; earthworm, grasshopper, pig. c) parasitic; roundworm.

    7. Organs for Gas Exchange: a) skin; clam/earthworm, sea star, lancelet, hydra. b) gills; clam, crayfish. c) lungs; pig. d) spiracles/tracheae; grasshopper.
  10. Comparison of Organisms
    8. Organs of Excretion: a) flame cells; planarians. b) nephridia; clam/earthworm, calm, lancelet. c) green glands; crayfish. d) Malpighian tubules; grasshopper. e) kidney; pig.

    9. Type of Locomotion: a) none to limited; sponge, hydra. b) swim; clamworm, crayfish, lancelet. c) walk; crayfish, grasshopper, pig. d) crawling; earth/roundworm, planarian.

    10. Support System: a) external; clam, roundworm, crayfish, grasshopper. b) internal; sea star, lancelet, pig. c) hydrostatic; round/clam/earthworm.
  11. Comparison of Organisms
    11. Segmented Body: a) no; clam, roundworm, planarian. b) yes; clam/earthworm, crayfish, grasshopper, pig.

    12. Appendages: a) yes; hydra, clamworm, crayfish, grasshopper, pig. b) no; all others.

    13. Nervous System: a) ventral nerve cord; grasshopper, crayfish. b) dorsal nerve cord; lancelet, pig. c) other; nerve net (hydra), laddelike (planarian), dorsal and ventral (roundworm), nerve ring and radial nerves (sea star).
Card Set
Biology lab
Animal diversity topic 18 and 19 for capilano u students.