The Pelvis and Back

  1. Pelvic anatomy...
    • Inferior to the abdominal region
    • Perineum - region inferior to pelvic diaphragm and between thighs and buttocks
    • Paired hip bones
  2. The paired hip bones include...
    • Ilium - largest; superior acetabulum
    • Pubis - anterior acetabulum; anterior/medial
    • Ischium - posterior (you sit on your ischial tuberosity)
    • Sacrum - 5 fused vertebrae, 4 pair of foramen (sacral foramen); provides strength and stability to pelvis and transmits body weight to pelvic girdle
    • Coccyx - 4 fused vertebrae (tailbone)
  3. What is the one function of the sacral foramen?
    The sacral foramen are needed to get nerves to the anterior aspect of the lower extremities
  4. What are the landmarks of the pelvis?
    • Iliac crest
    • Anterior superior iliac crest (ASIC)
    • Anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS)
    • Acetabulum
    • Obturator foramen
    • Ischial tuberosity
    • Ischial spine
    • Posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS)
  5. What are the functions of the pelvic landmarks?
    • Protect organs (internal)
    • Transmit forces (taking force from lower extremities and directing it up vertebral column)
    • Muscle attachments
  6. What is the lumbosacral joint?
    The cartilaginous joint that articulates between the 5th lumbar vertebra (L5) and the 1st sacral vertebra (S1)
  7. What is the sacroccygeal joint?
    The cartilaginous joint that articulates between the 5th sacral vertebra (S5) and the 1st coccygeal vertebra (Co1)

    • Ligaments:
    • 1. Ventral sacrococcygeal ligament
    • 2. Lateral sacrococcygeal ligament
  8. What is the sacroiliac joint?
    The joint that articulates between the sacrum and the ilium; it is strong due to the ligaments and the elevations and depressions of the bones (stabilizes and doesn't allow sliding); MAXIMUM stability and MINIMUM mobility

    • Ligaments:
    • 1. Ventral sacroiliac ligament
    • Origin: Anterior sacrum
    • Insertion: Anterior medial ilia crest
    • 2. Sacrospinous ligament (adds stability to the SI joint)
    • Origin: Inferior sacrum
    • Insertion: Ischial spine
    • 3. Sacrotuberous ligament
    • Origin: Inferior sacrum
    • Insertion: Ischial tuberosity
  9. What is the pubic symphysis?
    The cartilaginous joint between the pubic bones that contains triangulate cartilage (which is thicker in females for the childbirthing process)

    • Ligaments:
    • 1. Superior pubic ligament
    • 2. Arcuate pubic ligament
    • 3. Inguinal ligament (doesn't really stabilize because it doesn't cross over joint/ remains ipsilateral; mostly for division purposes)
    • Origin: Pubic tubercle
    • Insertion: ASIS
  10. What 2 muscles form the pelvic diaphragm? What is the pelvic diaphragm's purpose?
    • The levator ani and coccygeus
    • It divides the pelvic cavity from the perineum
  11. Levator Ani
    Larger and paired

    • Origin: Body of pubis
    • Insertion: Coccyx
    • Action: Support pelvic viscera; resist increase in intraabdominal pressure (childbearing and constipation); secondary - Raise pelvic floor while lifting heavy objects; support fetal head; voluntary control of urination
  12. Coccygeus
    • Origin: Ischial spine
    • Insertion: Inferior end of the sacrum (secondary to coccyx)
    • Action: Flex coccyx forward (when you sit down); support viscera
  13. Piriformus
    • Origin: Sacrum
    • Insertion: Greater trochanter of the femur
    • Action: External rotation of the hip; thigh AB-duction

    *This muscle commonly gets REALLY tight*
  14. What is the Valsalva Maneuver?
    When someone holds their breath until they pass out
  15. How many vertebrae are there total? In each region of the spine?
    • 33 vertebrae total
    • - 7 Cervical
    • - 12 Thoracic
    • - 5 Lumbar
    • - 5 Sacral
    • - 4 Coccygeal
  16. What is "normal" vertebral curvature?

    • Cervical spine - concave posteriorly
    • Thoracic spine - concave anteriorly
    • Lumbar spine - concave posteriorly
    • Sacrococcygeal spine - concave anteriorly
  17. What is the anterior functional unit?
    • Vertebral body - governs amount of spinal movement and provides attachment for muscles
    • Intervertebral disc
    • Anterior longitudinal ligament - runs on anterior aspect of all vertebral bodies
    • Function - WEIGHT BEARING
  18. What is the posterior functional unit?
    • Vertebral arch - 2 parts: the pedicle and the lamina
    • Posterior longitudinal ligament - posterior to vertebral bodies (on anterior aspect of foramen or posterior part of vertebral bodies)
    • Function -
  19. What are the 4 functions of the Vertebral Column?
    • 1. Protect spinal cord
    • 2. Support weight of body
    • 3. Provide rigid yet flexible
    • 4.
  20. What is scoliosis?
    • An abnormal curvature of the spine
    • Lateral, often rotated or curved
    • "S" or "C" shaped
    • Results in hump on back caused by the rotation of the rib cage and spine
    • Lean to one side , one shoulder higher, prominent shoulder blade
  21. What is Lordosis?
    • An abnormal curvature of the spine
    • Excessive curve in lumbar spine (found often in overweight people due to excess weight on anterior)
    • Forward pelvic tilt, weak abs
    • Poor posture
    • Found in swimmers and gymnasts as well
  22. What is kyphosis?
    • An abnormal curvature of the spine
    • Excessive thoracic curve
    • Roundback
    • "Scheuermann's disease"
    • Found often in older people
    • Strengthen back and abs: stretch pectorals
  23. What is spondylolysis?
    • An abnormality characterized by stress fracture in the neck of the vertebra (pars interarticularis - where the pedicle and lamina meet)
    • Can be congenital or acquired
    • Mechanical stress - repeated spinal loading of lumbar spine in hyper extension (occurs in L4/L5 - 90% L5)
    • "Scottie dog with collar"
    • Occurs in football linemen and gymnasts
  24. What is spondylolisthesis?
    • An abnormality characterized by fracture of both sides of vertebra
    • The vertebra slips forward (makes its so your spine can't absorb shock evenly = PAIN)
    • "Decapitated scottie dog"
  25. Cervical vertebrae
    • Small body, longer from side-to-side, triangular foramen
    • C1 = Atlas - KIDNEY shaped; no process or facets; supports skull
    • C2 = Axis - 50% of cervical rotation; STRONGEST of cervical vertebrae; contains dens/odontoid process
    • Bifrucated spinous processes
    • Paired transverse foramen (ONLY place with transverse foramen)
    • Gradually changes shape
    • Most flexion allowed out of all vertebrae
    • Lateral flexion is also great
  26. Thoracic vertebrae
    • Body is HEART shaped
    • Smaller circular foramen
    • Process: long, slender and slope posteriorly/inferiorly
    • Gradual change
    • Less mobile because discs are THINNEST, articulation with ribs, and long spinous processes
  27. Lumbar vertebrae
    • MASSIVE body; KIDNEY shaped
    • Foramen is more triangular shaped
    • Process - short and sturdy
    • Most extension allowed of anywhere in vertebral column
    • Rotation
    • Lateral flexion is great
  28. Sacrococcygeal vertebrae
    • WEDGE shaped
    • Smooth concave anterior (because organs have to sit against this aspect) / rough convex posterior
    • 4 paired foramen for nerves to pass through (plexus)
  29. Image Upload 2
    Pelvic ligaments
  30. Image Upload 4
    Cervical vertebrae
  31. Image Upload 6
    Thoracic vertebrae
Card Set
The Pelvis and Back
Includes information about the pelvis and back