Vertebral column & Spinal Cord S1M1

  1. Name two exaggerated curvatures
    • Kyphosis- hunchback (mostly seen in thoracic)
    • Lordosis- pregnant (Normaly in the lumbar region)
  2. The vertebrae are 20% longer due to
    • Anulus fibrosus
    • Nucleus pulposus (70-80% water) can dehydrate
    • Shock obsorbers
  3. When a disc is herniated it exits usually, why
    • Posterior anulus fibrosus
    • Because its thinner there
    • It never compresses the spinal cord
  4. Hyperextension of the back harms
    Anterior longitudinal ligament
  5. Hyperflexion of the vertebrae harms
    Posterior longitudinal ligament
  6. Whiplash harms
    Ligamentum flavum
  7. Where is are the Interspinous and Supraspinous ligaments
    In between the spinous processes and on the posterior respectively
  8. The spinal chord is larger in diameter at what two areas
    The cervical and lumbarsacral levels
  9. The portion of the spinal chord that extends to L1-L2
    Conus medullaris
  10. The nerve below C7 and above T1 is
  11. The posterior end of the grey butterfly controls what
    • Motor function
    • Ant. Sensory
  12. How many spinal chord segments are there
  13. In herniated discs in the lumbar region what nerve is compressed
    The one exiting below the disc
  14. Where do you enter for a spinal tap in adults
    Lumbar cistern L4
  15. The anterior and posterior portion of the spinal chord have how many veins each
    3 spinal veins
  16. What is a common place for metastasis in the spinal chord
    Vertebral venous plexus
  17. A spinal tap is between what layers
    Arachnoid and pia
  18. What are the vetebrae seperated by
    Fibro cartilaginous discs
  19. How many vetebrae are there and how many of each
    • 33 in all
    • 7 cervical
    • 12 thoracic
    • 5 lumbar
    • 5 sacral
    • 4 (3-4) coccygeal
  20. What is the function of the vertebrae
    • Suppports trunk
    • Protects spinal cord and nerves
    • Rigid and flexible axis for body
    • Posture and locomotion
  21. What are the commonalities of the vetebrae
    • Lamina
    • Pedicles
    • Body
    • Foramen
    • Spinous process
    • Transverse process
    • Superior articular facets
  22. What are allo the foramen together in a vetebrae called
    Vetebral canal
  23. How are the superior articular facets oriented
    Posterior and medial on the individual vertebrae
  24. How are the infererior articular facets oriented
    Anterior and lateral
  25. What is the Inferior articular facet connected to
    The superior articular facet
  26. What forms the Intervertebral foramen
    The Superior and Inferior facets connected
  27. How are the cervical vertebrae different from the rest
    • Small in size
    • Large vertebral foramina (triangular in shape)
    • Foramen Transversarium (Transverse foramen)
    • Bifid spinous process (not in C7)
  28. What goes through the transverse foramen
    Vetebral artery (which feeds the circle of willis)
  29. Why is the transverse process on C7 unique
    The vetebral artery doesn't pass through it
  30. Another name for C1
  31. Another name for C2
  32. How is the atlas different from the rest of the C vertebrae
    It doesn't have a body or a spinous process
  33. What do the superior articular facets of the atlas connect to
    Occipital condyles and is called the antlanto ocypital joint allowing the yes movement
  34. The lamina on the atlas is named
    The groove for the vetebral artery
  35. What is the strongest C vertebrae
    The Axis
  36. What is the dens and where is it located
    The dens is a superior protusion from the axis that is also called the ondontoid process and is a pivot point
  37. The dens is connected to the atlas via the
    Atlanto axial connection and is used for the no movement of the head
  38. Thoracic are unique do to what features
    • Intermediate in size
    • Round vertebral foramen (smaller then cervical)
    • Costal facets for ribs
    • Spinous process that slopes posteroinferiorly
  39. The heads of the ribs articulate with what facets
    The Inferior and Superior costal facets on the Thoracic vertebrae
  40. How are the Lumbar different
    • Large body
    • Triangular vertebral foramen
    • Spinous processes are short and sturdy
  41. When is the Sacrum fused
    Very early in life
  42. Where is a epideral performed
    In the Sacral hiatus
  43. What is the median sacral crest
    Rudimentary spinous process
  44. What Curvature is formed first
    Thoracic and sacral
  45. When is the cervical curve formed
    When babies begin to raise their head
  46. When is the lumbar curve developed
    When a baby begins to walk
  47. What are the three different layers of the spinal cord from the outside in
    • Dura
    • Arachnoid
    • Pia
  48. Denticulate ligament
    • Provides stability to the spinal cord against movement, look like teeth.
    • On Pia attaches to arachnoid and Dura
  49. Filum terminale
    is a delicate strand of fibrous tissue, about 20 cm. in length, proceeding downward from the apex of the conus medullaris.
Card Set
Vertebral column & Spinal Cord S1M1