Bio Midterm 2

  1. The energy for all living things comes from..
    The sun
  2. An organism that makes its own food is called an..
  3. An organism that eats food to get energy is called a..
  4. Define photosynthesis
    The process by which plants, and other autotrophs, convert energy from the sun into carbohydrates (sugars and straches)
  5. Equation for photosynthesis
    • 6CO2 + 6H2O >(light & chlorophyll)> C6H12O6 + 6O2
    • Carbon Dioxide + Water yeilds(light & chlorophyll) Sugar + Oxygen
  6. photosynthesis occurs in the..
  7. ......... is the openings of the lower leaf surface where carbon dioxide is turned into oxygen
  8. The opening in the stomata are surrounded by..
    guard cells
  9. The inner membrane in the chloroplast is called the..
    Thylakoid membrane
  10. A stack of thylakoids are called..
  11. Define stroma
    The liquid surrounding the thylakoids
  12. Light is energy, measured in wavelengths. As the space bwtween wavelengths decrease, the amount of energy..
  13. Plants would die if you only gave them green light because..
    Plants reflect green light, they don't absorb it
  14. Define pigments
    chemical compounds which reflect certain wavelengths
  15. Photosynthesis occurs in two main phases
    • 1. light reactions
    • 2. dark reactions (light independent reactions)
  16. Light reactions
    • -occur in thylakoid membrane
    • -light and water are required
    • -4 protien complexes = photosystem I & II, cytochrome b6, and ATP synthase
    • -energy storage molecules are formed (ATP and NADPH)
    • -oxygen is a waste product
  17. Process of light reactions
    • 1. light strikes chlorophyll exciting electrons
    • 2. electrons are transferred between photosystem I (generates NADPH) & II (generates ATP)
    • 3. Water is split in the process creating oxygen
  18. Light independent reactions
    • -occur in stroma
    • -carbon dioxide is made into the sugar glucose
    • -ATP and NADPH power the production of glucose
  19. Factors effecting photosynthesis
    • -amount of water
    • -tempurature
    • -amount of carbon dioxide
    • -light intesnisty/wavelength (color)
  20. Define calorie
    the amount of energy needed to raise the temp. of 1 gram of water 1oC
  21. Define kilocalorie (Calorie)
    • measurment found in food labels
    • -1 Cal = 1000 cal
  22. Define phosphorylation
    the addition of a phosphate to ATP mamking ADP
  23. What is NAD+?
    • - electron carrier, hydrogen acceptor
    • -carries energy from the bonds in glucose to the next step
  24. The mitochondria
    site of cellualar respiration
  25. Matrix
    • -fluid filled space
    • -where reactions occur
  26. Cristae
    -extensive folds in the inner membrane
  27. Define cellular respiration
    process that releases energy by braking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen
  28. Define aerobic
    requires oxygen
  29. Chemical equation for cellular respiration
    • C6H12O6 + 6O2 >> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
    • glucose + oxygen yields carbon dioxide + water + energy
  30. 3 stages of cellular respiration
    • 1. glycolysis (no oxygen)
    • 2. Kreb's cycle (citric acid cycle)
    • 3. electron transport chain
  31. Define glycolysis
    process by which one molecule of glucose is split in half producing 2 molecules of pyruvic acid
  32. Glycolysis
    • -takes place in cytoplasm
    • -anaerobic
    • -requires energy
    • -end products = 2 pyruvic acids, 4 ATP (net gain of 2), 2 NADH
  33. pyruvic acid has ... carbon molecules
  34. Anaerobic respiration is aka..
  35. Fermentation
    • -allows Kreb's cycle to work
    • -alternate pathway
    • -does not require oxygen
    • -2 types = alcohol fermentaion and lactic acid fermentaion
  36. Define fermentaion
    releases energy from food molecules by producing ATP in the absence of oxygen
  37. Alcohol fermentation
    • -can't be proformed by animals
    • -pyruvic acid + NADH >> alcohol +CO2 + NAD+
  38. Lactic acid fermentaion
    -pyruvic acid + NADH >> lactic acid + NAD+
  39. Kreb's cycle
    • -pyruvic acid is broken down into CO2 in energy extracting reactions
    • -aerobic
    • -energy produced from = ATP, NADPH, and FADH2(electron carrier)
    • -end products = 2 ATP, CO2, 8 NADH, 2 FADH2
  40. Electron transport chain
    • -sieres of proteins on the inner membrane of the mitochondrion
    • -uses high energy electrons from the Krebs cycle to convert ADP to ATP
    • -electron is passed from one protein to the next
    • -at the end H+ ions combine with oxygen to form H20
  41. Aerobic respiration vs anaerobic respiration
    Aerobic-3 pathways(slow), yeild 36 ATP molecules, usesd fro long term energy

    Anaerobic-1 pathway(fast), yeilds 2 ATP molecules, used fro quick kburst of energy
  42. Define unicellular
    one single cells
  43. Define multicellular
    Groups of cells that work together
  44. Define development
    a change in form
  45. Define metabolism
    process by which organisms break down of build up materials
  46. Major metabolic processes
    photosynthesis and cellular respiration
  47. Atom
    • -means unable to be cut
    • -smallest piece of an element
    • -have 3 sub atomic particals = proton(+), electron(-), and nuetron(no charge)
    • -protons and nutrons are held together by a strong force
  48. Define element
    A pure substance made of only one type of atom
  49. Define atomic number
    number of protons in an atom of that element
  50. Define mass number
    Equal to the number of protons + nuetrons
  51. Define isotopes
    • When some atoms of the same element contain a different number of nuetrons
    • -isotops are named by their mass numbers
  52. Subtract the atomic number from the mass number to get..
    amount of electrons
  53. Radioactive isotopes have
    • and unstable nucleus that decays at a constant rate over time
    • -the isotopes mass number and atomic number are switched
  54. Interactions of elements
    • -most substances do not exist as a single element, they form compunds as they mix
    • -only 90 elements are naturally occuring
  55. Define molecule
    • smallest unit of a comound that retains the element of the compound
    • -properties are different then their component element
  56. Chemical formulas show..
    the ratios of different types of elements
  57. Bonds form when atoms..
    share or exchange electrons on the outer most element
  58. Ionic bonds form when
    1 or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another by their atraction to make them more stable
  59. Ions are atoms that are formed by..
    • gaining or losing an electron
    • -positive if they lose electrons
    • -negative if they gain electrons
  60. Covalent bonds form molecules when..
    • the outter electrons are shared between atoms
    • -usually occur between two non-metalic elements
  61. Van der Waals forces are..
    • -a type of week intermolecule force(not a bond) that can hold molecules together
    • -forms because electrons are not shared equally
  62. A water molecule is polar because its hydrogen end has a...
    Slight positive charge
  63. Describe hydrogen bonds
    • -not real bonds but a strong Van de Waal forces
    • -the slight positive and negative charges attract surrounding molecules
    • -gives water special properties
  64. Define cohesion
    an attraction of molecules of the same substance
  65. Define adhesion
    the attraction between molecules of a different substance
  66. A mixture is a material composed of..
    • two or more elements or compounds that are mixed together
    • -not chemically combined
  67. Suspensions contain tiny pices of matter that..
    may not disolve but remain small
  68. Acidity
    • acids = 0-7
    • bases = 7-14
  69. Hydrolysis reaction is when you..
    • add water to split something
    • -opposite of condenstaion reaction
  70. Describe polysaccharides
    • -a large molecule made up of repeating subunits
    • -polymer
    • -formed through condenstaion reactions
  71. Define protein
    • a huge molecule with many diverse funstions
    • -contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
    • -polymer structure
  72. Functions of protiens
    • -structure
    • -oxygen transport
    • -immune reactions
    • -movement
    • -catalysts
  73. All enzymes are protiens but..
    all protiens are not enzymes
  74. Protiens primary structure
    • -sequence of amino acids (20 kinds)
    • -held together by peptide bonds which are formed by taking away water
  75. Proteins secondary structure
    • -amino acid sequence coils to form a helix
    • -helix held together by hydrogen bonds
  76. Protiens tertiary structure
    • -3D shape (gobular structure)
    • -helix folds on its self

    then theres a Quadrinary structure
  77. Define denaturation
    • -alters tertiary structure by braking hydrogen structures
    • -destroys enzyme function
  78. Energy pyramids show..
    the amount of energy at each trophic level of a food web
  79. Why are there only 5 trophic levels?
    Because the enegry transfer between each tropic level in inefficent and cant typically support organisms higher in the tropic levels
  80. Define biomass
    total amount of living tissue in each trophic level
  81. Describe inorganic matter
    • -not living
    • -does not include carbon
    • -example: rocks and minerals
  82. Describe organic matter
    • -carbon based
    • -includes decomposed organisms and organisms waste products
  83. What are physical factors?
    • -other factors that influence organisms
    • -example: temp., amount of sun, rainfall, etc.
  84. What is chemosynthesis?
    • -bacteria produce ATP from iniorganic substances
    • -plants use when there is no sun
    • -example: plants at the bottom of the ocean
  85. Describe herbivores
    • -plant eating organisms
    • -primary consumers
  86. Describe carnivores
    • -eat other animals
    • -secondary consumers
  87. Describe omnivores
    -eat both plant and animal matter
  88. Describe detrivores
    -feed on plant and animal remains
  89. What are decomposers?
    • -heterotrophs which break down organic matter
    • -make essential nutrience available
    • -example: bacteria and fungi
  90. What are the Laws oof Thermodynamics?
    • -matter can not be created or destroyed
    • -matter can be transformed from one form to another
  91. Define food web
    A series of inter-related foor chains
  92. Describe the water cycle
    • -gaseous cycle
    • -resevoir: atmosphere
    • -processes: physical processes, change in state
    • -STEPS
    • -evaporation: return
    • -precipitation: release
    • -condensation: release
    • -transpiration: return (evaporation from plants)
    • -perspiration: return (evaporation from animals)
  93. Describe the carbon cycle
    • -gaseous cycle
    • -resevoir: atmosphere
    • -processes: chemical
    • -STEPS
    • -photosynthesis: capture (CO2 >> C6H12O6)
    • -respiration: return (C6H12O6 >> CO2)
    • -decomposition: return (fats, proteins, carbs >> CO2)
    • -combustion: return (C + O2 >> CO2)
  94. Describe the nitrogen cycle
    • -gaseous cycle
    • -reservoir: atmosphere
    • -processes: chemical
    • -STEPS
    • -nitrogen fixation*: capture
    • -nitrification*: convert to useable form
    • -assimilation: conversion to build molecules for oranisms
    • -decomposition*: conversion
    • -denitrification*: return
    • * = processes use bacteria
  95. Define legumes
    a plant that has nitrogen-fixing bacteria on its roots, increasing the soils nitrogen content
  96. Describe the phospherous cycle
    • -sedimentary cycle
    • -reservoir: soil, rocks, sediments
    • -processes: physical and chemical
    • -STEPS
    • -decomposition: release phosphate from organic molecules to soil, chemical process
    • -weathering & erosion: release phosphate through the wearing away of rocks, physical process
    • -uplifting: expose phosphates through geological action or mix bottom sedimenets by currents, physical processes
  97. What time of plants are legumes?
    Peas, beans, peanuts and clovers
  98. What determinds the type of cycle?
    The location of the resevoir
  99. Define biotic potential
    Innate ability to reproduce under ideal condtions
  100. Define limiting factors
    Anything which inhibits the growth of an organisms
  101. Define enviornmental resistance
    Sum total of limiting factors
  102. Define carrying capacity
    Maximum number of individuals that can be supported by a given habitat
  103. What is the competion exclusion principle?
    • No two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
    • -one species will always ise the resources more efficiently
    • -that species will repoduce more
    • -advantage leads to elimintaion of the weaker competion
  104. Define symbiosis
    The long-term relationship between two organisms in and ecosystem
  105. Define isotonic
    Equal concentration, no net movement
  106. Define hypertonic
    More concentration
  107. Define hypotonic
    More water
  108. Define crenation
    Animal cell shrinks
  109. Define plasmolysis
    Plant vacuole shrinks
  110. Define lysis
    Animal swells to burst
  111. Define turgor
    Vacuole fills to capacity
  112. What are the 3 passive movement processes?
    • -diffusion
    • -osmosis
    • -facilitated diffusion
  113. Describe facilitated diffusion
    • -movement from high to low concentration
    • -used to move simple sugars and amino acids
    • -move along the concentration gradient
    • -passive process
  114. Describe active transport processes
    • -move against concentration gradient
    • -requires energy
    • -3 types = protein pumps, endocytosis, exocytosis
  115. Describe protein pumps
    • -requires protein carriers
    • -against concentration gradient
    • -used to conserve and move ions
  116. Describe endocytosis
    • -used to bring larger substances into cell
    • -forms vesicle(bubble) from cell mambrane
    • -2 types = phagocytosis(cell eating) and pinocytosis(cell drinking)
  117. Describe exocytosis
    • -used to release large molecules
    • -requires energy
Card Set
Bio Midterm 2