CHFD 3920

  1. Adaptability
    The capacity of the system to change its rules and strategies in response to situational or developmental stress.
  2. Boundaries
    The concept used to delineate one system or subsystem from other systems or subsystems, or from the surrounding environment.
  3. Covert Rules
    Rules that are implicit rather than openly stated but are nonetheless understood by all family members

    EX: where everyone sits at the dinner table...not really stated but everyone knows where they should sit
  4. Family
    an interdependent group of individuals who have a shared sense of history, experience some degree of emotional bonding, and devise strategies for meeting the needs of individual members and the group as a whole.
  5. Family Themes
    Those elements of the family experience that become organizing principles for family life, including both conscious and unconscious elements as well as intellectual (attitudes, beliefs, values) and emotional aspects.
  6. First-Order task
    The tasks that are common to all families regardless of their particular composition, socioeconomic status, and cultural, ethnic, or racial heritage.

    Ex: formation of family themes, regulation of boundaries, management of the household.
  7. Interdependence
    The idea that individuals and subsystems that compose the whole system are mutually dependent and mutually influenced by one another
  8. Metarules
    rules about rules
  9. Morphogenesis
    Those processes operating within systems that foster systemic growth and development
  10. Morphostasis
    Those processes operating within systems that resist changes in existing strategies
  11. Openness
    The ease with which members and information cross the boundary from one system or subsystem to another
  12. Organizational Complexity
    The organizational structure whereby family systems are comprised of various smaller units or subsystems that together comprise the larger family system
  13. Overt Rules
    Explicit and openly stated rules
  14. Rules
    recurring patterns of interaction that define the limits of acceptable and appropriate behavior in the family.
  15. Second-Order tasks
    The responsibility that all families have for adapting their strategies and rules in response to stress, information, and change.
  16. Strategies
    The specific policies and procedures the family adopts to accomplish its tasks. Also the unique patterns of interaction that each family establishes to execute its basic tasks.
  17. Stress
    Information transmitted to the system about whether established interactional patterns require alteration.
  18. Stucture
    Both the family's composition and its organization. Composition refers to the family's membership, that is, the persons who make up the family. Organization is the collection of interdependent relationships and subsystems that operate by established rules of interaction.
  19. Wholeness
    The idea that systems must be understood in their entirety, which is distinctly different from the simple sum of the contributions of the individual parts.
  20. Behavioral coping strategies
    What the family actually does to manage stress
  21. Cognitive coping strategies
    The perceptions and appraisals that people and families make with regard to specific stressors or events
  22. Coping
    The cognitive and behavioral problem-solving strategies that are used to respond to a stressor event
  23. Coping Efficacy
    The adequacy of the efforts undertaken by the family to reduce stress
  24. Coping resources
    Those properties, attributes, or skills individuals, families, or societies have at their disposal when adapting to novel and demanding situations. Coping resources serve to minimize vulnerability to stress
  25. Disengaged
    The concept used to describe systems' boundaries characterized by a high tolerance for invididuality
  26. Enmeshed
    The concept used to describe systems' boundaries characterized by a low tolerance for individuality
  27. Maintenance resources
    The amount of time, energy, and money that the family has available to accomplish its maintenance tasks
  28. Non-normative stressor events
    Unexpected events that create unanticipated hardships and require adaptations or alterations in the strategies used by the system to execute some or all of its basic tasks
  29. Permeability
    The degree to which the family's boundaries are relatively open or closed
  30. Pile-up of stressor events
    The total number of events, both normative and non-normative, that a family must contend with at any point
  31. Stress
    The degree of pressure exerted on the family to alter the strategies it employs to accomplish its basic tasks
  32. Adaptation
    How the family reorganizes its structure in response to internal demands and external social or environmental events.
  33. Alliance
    A pattern of interaction formed when two family members share an interest with one another that is not shared by others
  34. Boundaries
    Within the structural model, definitions of who is in the system and its subsystems. Boundaries regulate how family members are to interact with one another.
  35. Coalition
    An interactional pattern characterized by one family member siding with a second member against a third.
  36. Context
    The set of circumstances or facts that surround a particular event, situation, individual, or family
  37. Cross-generational coalition
    An inappropriate alliance between one parent and a child against the other parent that undermines the executive functions and authority of the parental subsytem
  38. Disengagement
    The lack of involvement among family members that result from rigid boundaries
  39. Enmeshment
    The over involvement among family members that result from diffuse boundaries
  40. Hierarchy
    The clear distinctions between the levels of a well-organized system
  41. Parentification
    An imbalance in the family's power and authority hierarchy that develops when power and control rest with the children, or when parents rely on their children for nurturance, support, and care
  42. Structure
    According to Minuchin (1974), the invisible set of functional demands that organize the way family members interact with one another over time.
  43. Subsytem
    A group formed within a larger system that shares common functions or other features such as gender, generation, or interest.
  44. Conflict
    In intergenerational models, a strategy for maintaining distance from others and protecting one's sense of self. Conflict and disagreement can help to maintain an illusion of difference
  45. Differentiation
    When applied to the individual, differentiation refers to the ability of family members to express their own individuality and act autonomously while remaining emotionally connected to others. At the family level, differentiation refers to the degree to which difference is tolerated within the family system.
  46. Differentiation of self
    The extent to which one has successfully resolved emotional attachment to one's family of origin. This becomes reflected in the individual's level of psychological maturity.
  47. Emotional Cutoff
    An attempt to emotionally, psychologically, or physically detach oneself from the family of origin in an effort to avoid fusion and maintain control over one's sense of self
  48. Family Ledger
    A multigenerational "accounting system" of who, psychologically speaking owes what to whom
  49. Family projection process
    The process by which parents project (displace) a part of their own unresolved emotional attachment or conflicts onto one or more of their children
  50. Fusion
    The tendency to submerge one's sense of self in relationships with others, thereby losing the distinctions among emotional and intellectual functioning, self and other
  51. Legacy
    The set of expectations and responsibilities family members develop toward one another based on the patterns and dynamics that have operated in their extended family system over time, and on the particular position they held in their own family of origin. The legacy includes a sense of loyalty and indebtedness to the family
  52. Multigenerational transmission process
    The process by which the family's level of differentiation and the parents' unresolved emotional attachments are reenacted in future relationships and passed along to succeeding generations
  53. Overfunctioning/ Underfunctioning
    A reciprocal pattern of interaction in which one participant assumes a competent caretaking position in relation to the other, who assumes a dependent, child-like position
  54. Self
    A superordinate personal structure whose purpose is to organize an individual's experiences (cognitive and emotional, conscious and unconscious) into a coherent and meaningful whole.
  55. Triangulation
    A three-person interaction in which the tension and conflict experienced between two persons id displaced onto a third party
  56. Undifferentiated family ego mass
    A poorly differentiated system characterized by a low tolerance for individuality in which members appear to be "emotionally stuck together"
Card Set
CHFD 3920
Family Interaction