Anatomy Notecards

  1. although radiology seldom yields a final diagnosis, how does it contribute
    creation of an adequate differential diagnoses list
  2. when is radiology, as a diagnostic modality, selected
    when the history and physical exam suggests a possible benefit
  3. The body is divided into dorsal and ventral portions by a ___ plane
    Dorsal (frontal) plane
  4. What section cuts parallel to the long axis of an organ or limb?
    Longitudinal section
  5. The human term anterior corresponds with what veterinary terms
    Crainial on limbs, rostral on face and ventral on body.
  6. Where are superior and inferior used in veterinary medicine
    For the eyes and some other head structures, replacing dorsal and ventral respectively
  7. the human term posterior corresponds with ___ and ___
    Caudal (limbs and head); Dorsal ( body)
  8. Give and example of each type of bone according to shape
    Short (carpal or tarsal), flat ( most facial bones) irregular (vertebral, some facial) sesamoid (patella and sesamoids) long (most bones of limbs)
  9. What is the space in the diaphysis containing the marrow
    Medullary cavity
  10. What is the fibrous and cellular tissue lining the medullary cavity of a bone
  11. What is an apophysis
    any outgrowth of a bone, i.e. a process
  12. What are the spicules of bone separated by spaces in cancellous bone
  13. What is any prominent, roughened, projection from a bone
  14. What is a large, knuckle-like articular prominence
  15. a ____ is a tube-like canal through a bone
  16. what is a smooth, flat, articular surface
  17. What is the pulley-shaped structure of the femur
  18. What is a prominence above a condyle
  19. A ___ is an opening through a bone
  20. List the bones and cartilages of the axial skeleton
    skull including mandible, hyoid apparatus, vertebral column or backbone (cervical thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, caudal) bony thorax (ribs, sternum (mandibular, xiphoid bond))
  21. What is the appendicular skeleton
    consists of the bones of the limbs
  22. lst the bones of the thoracic limb, pectoral limb, or forelimb
    clavicle (cat, dog no) scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, carpal bones (radial carpal bone, accessory carpal bone) metacarpal bones, digitial bones (proximal phalanx or p1, middle phalanx or p2, distal phalanx or p3, proximal sesamoid bones or sesamoids)
  23. List the bones of the pelvic limb or hind limb
    Bony pelvix (hip bone or ossa coxae (ilium, ischium, pubis)) femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsal bones (calcaneus, talus) metatarsal bones, digit bones (see thoracic limb bones)
  24. how are synovial joints classified by their number of articular surfaces
    into ? simple or compound
  25. give an example of a compound joint
    stifle, elbow > than 2 articular surfaces
  26. give examples of a hinge joint
    elbow, proximal interphalangeal joint
  27. a ___ or ____ joint allows flexion and extension
    ginglymus or hinge
  28. give examples of a plane joint
    carpal, small tarsal bones, cranial and caudal articulations between vertebrae
  29. what is a uniaxial joint allowing rotation around a longitudinal axis of a bone
    pivot joint
  30. give an example of a pivot joint
    atlantoaxial joint, proximal radioulnar
  31. what uniaxial joint is formed by 2 condyles of one bone fitting into concavities of another bone
    condylar joint
  32. give an example of a condylar joint
    femorotibial (stifle) , temporomandibular, atlanto-occipital
  33. what type of action is permitted by a condylar joint
    flexion and extension and a little rotation
  34. what structural type of joint is characterized by its mobility
  35. of what does the joint capsule of a synovial joint consist
    outer fibrous layer and inner synovial layer -membrane
  36. what is the fxn of articular cartilage
    reduces concussion and friction effects
  37. what are the strong bands of white fibrous tissue uniting bones
  38. what plate of fibrocartilage partially or completely divides the joint cavity of the stifle and temporomandibular joint
    meniscus or disc
  39. what sac-like structure is found between different tissues
  40. what is the origin of a muscle
    proximal or usually least movable attachment
  41. what is the insertion of a muscle
    distal or usually more movable attachment
  42. which attachment is the origin for the extrinsic limb muscles and the muscles of the rest of the body
    least movable
  43. what attaches muscle to a bone
    tendon running through the entire muscle
  44. what structure attaches two bones
  45. what type of muscle's fibers encircle an opening
  46. how do muscles work mechanically
    by pulling, not pushing
  47. in anatomy how does the lenth of a name compare to the importance of a structure
    longer the name, less important (ex aorta -important, extensor pollicis longus et indicis proprius -less important
  48. define extension and flexion
    extension: increases angle between bones flexion: decreases angle
  49. define supination and pronation
    supination: palmar surface dorsal, pronation: palmar surface ventral
  50. what is movement of an extremity in a plane describing the surface of a cone?
  51. what motion moves a part forward? returning a protracted part to its usual position
    protraction: retraction
  52. what is the bending of the spinal column dorsally or ventrally
    dorsal or ventral flexion
  53. what are the 2 broad categories of thoracic limb muscle and what defines them
    • extrinsic: connect limb to body
    • intrinsic: both attachments in limb
  54. what are the 2 main muscles of the arm (brachial mm) and what are their actions
    • biceps brachii: flex elbow
    • triceps brachii : extend elbow
  55. how do respiratory muscles work due to their location
    inspiratory mm, located cranially, increase size of thorax by pulling ribs cranially and laterally (diaphragm moves caudally)
  56. what is the principal muslces of inspiration
  57. what ventral abdominal muscle is on either side of the linea alba
    rectus abdominis muscle
  58. where are the "hamstring" muscles located
    caudal thigh
  59. why are the flexors and extensors different in the leg and forepaw
    flexor side of the tarsus and digits different but same for the carpus and digits
  60. what are the muscles that connect the eye and the body , move the eye, and are innervated byt the 3rd, 4th and 6th cranial nn
    extrinsic muscles of the eye
  61. what are 2 components of nervous tissue
    neurons or nerve cells (functional unit of the nervous system) neuroglia cells ( the supporting structurs of nervous tissue) both are bathed in extracellular fluid
  62. list the parts of neurons or nerve cells
    cell body (soma or perikaryon) the control (trophic) center; nucleus (prominent nucleolus); nerve processes: 2 types extend from the cell: dendrites (receptor) axon (info away from cell body); synaptic knobs/telodendria (synaptic vesicles)
  63. given an example of a central and a peripheral neuroglia
    • cns: astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia
    • pns: schwann cells
  64. discuss schwann cells
    neuroglia of the pns that form myelin sheaths by winding around nerve processes. myelin is a lipoprotein forming a sheath around nerve processes that fxn to increase the speed of impulse conduction and to insulate the nerve process. nodes of ranvier are unmyelinated gaps btwn segments of the myelin sheath
  65. define a synapse
    a specialized site of apposition where info passes from one nerve cell to another cell
  66. describe the components of a synapse
    1st cell: presynaptic cell (always a nerve) 2nd: postsynaptic cell (neuron, a muscle or a gland) with synaptic cleft btwn
  67. describe a synaptic event
    neuron action potential propagates down the axon to the synaptic know of the presynaptic cell, causing the synaptic vesicles to release their neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. the neurotransmitters diffuse across the cleft to bind to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane causing a change in the postsynaptic memb. if the postsyn cell is a neuron, the event can initiate or inhibit another NAP in the postsyn n. if it is a muscle, it may result in contraction
  68. what type of nerve fibers pass thru dorsal and ventral roots
    dorsal: sensory ventral: motor
  69. which root of spinal nerves brings sensory fibers to the spinal cord
    dorsal root
  70. what is the swelling of the dorsal root
    dorsal root ganglia, cell bodies of sensory fibers
  71. what spinal root carries motor nerve fibers from cell bodies in the spiinal cord to muscles and glands
    ventral root
  72. describe the components of a reflex arc
    • stimulus: a change in the environment -a pin prick/noxious stim
    • receptor: sensory neuron's dendritic zone -pain detection -that generates an impulse
    • sensory aff neuron: carries sensory impulses to the cns
    • interneuron or assoc neuron: in spinal cord, connects a sensory neuron with motor neuron. also connects with other neurons to the brain -as an ouch
    • motor eff neuron or lmn: carries an impulse to an effector organ
    • effector target organ: the muscle or gland innervated by a motor neuron which reacts to the stimulus - pull away from stove
  73. ventral branches of spinal nerves interlace to form
  74. plexuses are formed by the ventral branches of the spinal nerve in every region except which
  75. the ventral branches of the thoracic nerves do not form a plexus, but pass in the intercostal spaces as ____ nerves
    intercostal nn
  76. what is the fxn of the ANS
    maintain homeostasis of an organism
  77. autonomic fxns are mainly set up by ___ ___
    reflex arcs: visceral sensory and motor nn
  78. what are the 2 divisions of the ANS
    parasympathetic and sympathetic division
  79. what is the fight or flight division of the ANS
  80. the visceral effectors of the ANS usually have a ___ innervation
  81. what are the cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers?
    in the nuclei of cranial nn 3,7,9,10 in the brain stem and the sacral spinal cord segment
  82. where are the cell bodies of the sympathetic preganglionic fibers
    intermediolateral gray matter of the spinal cord
  83. the ANS, although said to be involuntary, is still controlled by___?
    higher centers in the brain: cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and medulla oblongata
  84. what are the neurotransmitters of the ANS
    • acetylcholine: preganglionic for both and postganglionic parasympathetic
    • norepinephrine : postganglionic sympathetic
  85. what gland is part of the sympathetic ANS
    adrenal glands (medulla)
  86. what results from sympathetic stimulation of the adrenal gland
    norepinephrine dumped into blood stream = massive sympathetic response
  87. why is the parasympathetic activity more discrete than the sympathetic
    ACh is destroyed locally, NorE is dumped into the blood stream by the adrenals
  88. what are the ANS structures in the neck
    vagosympathetic trunk and vertebral n
  89. with what is the vagosympathetic trunk intimately associated
    common carotid a in the carotid sheath
  90. what is the parasympathetic innervation to the head?
    • cranial nerves 3 7 9 10
    • postganglionic from cranial cervical ganglion
  91. what is the sympathetic innervation to the abdomen?
    splanchic nn, collateral ganglion and plexuses

    vagus: eo end of the transverse colon; pelvic n descending colon
  92. what is the sympathetic innervation to the pelvis?

    hypogastric n

    pelvic nerves
  93. how do the abdominal muscles attach to the linea alba
    by aponeurosis - flat tendons
  94. what is the rectus sheath
    aponeurosis of the abdominal mm, around the rectus abdominis m meet/fuse at the linea alba
  95. which rectus sheath is most clinically important
    external rectus sheath
  96. list the parts of the large intestine
    cecum, colon and rectum, anal canal
  97. list the parts of the female reproductive tract
    ovary, uterine tube, uterus (horns, body, and cervix) vagina, vestibule, vulva (labie and clitoris)
  98. list the 3 parts of the uterus
    cervix, body, horns
  99. what is the external female genitalia and its components
    vulva consisting of the labia and clitoris in the clitoral fossa ventrally inside the labia
  100. what marks the division btwn the vagina and vestibule
    external urethral orifice
  101. what suspends the female reproductive tract in the abdomen
    broad ligament - connecting peritoneum
  102. list the parts of the male reproductive tract
    testicle in scrotum, epididymis, ductus defferens, prostate, urethra, penis ( root, body, glans)
  103. what is the superficial inguinal ring
    slit in the aponeurosis of the external abdominal oblique muscle -eao
  104. what extends from the superficial iguinal ring to the testicle
    spermatic cord
  105. what serosa connects the visceral and parietal vaginal tunics
    mesorchium -connecting vaginal tunic
  106. what is the vaginal ring
    point of evaginationof peritoneum thru inguinal canal, forming opening btwn peritoneal and vaginal cavities
  107. what is the only accessory ex gland in the dog? cat?
    prostate (if ampulla of ductus differens not included ) cat also has bulbourethral gland
  108. what cutaneous sheath surrounds the end of the quiescent penis
    prepuce or sheath
  109. what are the 2 principal divisions of the circulatory system
    blood vascular and lymph vascular systems
  110. what makes up the blood vascular system
    blood, heart, arteries, capillaries and veins
  111. what system does the heart drive
    blood vascular system
  112. what vessels travel toward the heart
  113. what is the definition of an artery
    vessels that travel away from the heart
  114. what are capillaries
    microscopic vessels exchanging oxygen and wastes with tissues
  115. what is interstitial fluid
    fluid bathing the body's cells
  116. what vein returns blood from the head, neck, thoracic limb and cranial part of the thoracic cavity walls to the right atrium
    cranial vena cava
  117. what vein returns blood to the heart from the abd, pelvis and pelvic limb
    caudal vena cava
  118. what carries blood from the right heart to the lungs
    pulmonary trunk and pulmonary arteries
  119. what returns blood from the lungs to the left side of the heart
    pulmonary veins
  120. in the carnivores, what are the branches of the aortic arch
    brachiocephalic and left subclavian
  121. what part of the aorta is divided into thoracic and abdominal parts
    descending aorta
  122. what is the main artery in the brachium
    brachial artery
  123. name the main branches of the terminal aorta
    2 external iliac, 2 internal iliac, and 1 median sacral -arteries
  124. hat terminal branch of the aorta supplies the pelvic viscera and part of the hip and thigh
    internal iiac artery
  125. what are the terminal branches of the internal iliac artery
    internal pudendal and caudal gluteal aa
  126. what is the main branch to the pelvic viscera?
    and specifically to the uterus
    vaginal or prostatic artery; uterine artery off vaginal
  127. what is the direct continuation of the external iliac artery out of the abdominal cavity to the pelvic limb for which it is the main supply
    femoral artery
  128. what is the main branch of the vaginal artery
    uterine artery
  129. what is the blood supply to the uterus in the carnivores
    uterine artery and uterine branch of the ovarian artery
  130. what is the name of the coiled testicular vein around the testicular artery in the spermatic cord
    pampiniform plexus
  131. how are the deep veins of the limbs named
    for the arteries they travel with
  132. ouline where the cephalic vein is
    arises on the palmar side of the paw, travels proximally, wrapping around to the cranial side, by the accessory cephalic v, then continues up the cranial forearm and elbow to eventually empty into the external jugular v
  133. what superficial vein arises from the dorsum of the paw and joins the cephalic vein proximal to the carpus
    accessory cephalic vein
  134. what veins form the external jugular vein
    maxillary and linguofacial vv
  135. what are the large valveless venous passages located within the dura that drain the brain and skull
    dural sinuses
  136. what makes up the lymphatic system
    lymphatic tissues and vessels -lymph, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, lymph nodules, peyer's patches, tonsils, thymus and spleen
  137. describe lymphatic vessels
    similar to veins, bit thinner walls, more valves, and lymph nodes along their course
  138. describe a typical lymph node
    oviod or bean-shaped encapsulated lymphoid tissue scattered along the course of the medium-sized lymphatic vessels
  139. list the superficial lymph nodes of the body and their locations
    parotid lymph nodes below ear, mandibular LN -near the angle of the mandible - superficial cervical LN - cranial to the shoulder joint - popliteal LN -behind the stifle - superficial inguinal -mammary or scrotal - btwn then trunk and thigh
  140. what are the LN located around the tracheal bifurcation that drain the lungs
    tracheobronchial LN
  141. what are the lymphoepithelial structures or masses of unencapsulated lymphoid tissue within various mucous membranes that protect the entrances into the body
  142. what is the largest lymphoid organ in the body
  143. what LN are located in the cranial mediastinum
    cranial mediastinal LN
  144. LN ___ the lymph passing thru them
  145. what is another name for the skin
    common integument, cutis
  146. name 3 structures that consist of common integument
    sweat glands, skin, claws, hoof, horn, hair
  147. why is the skin thick on the neck
    to protect the external jug vein
  148. what are the long filamentous appendages of skin
  149. how does the epidermis receive nutrition
    blood vessels in dermis
  150. what are the long course hairs sensory to touch called
    tactile hair or vibrissae
  151. where are tactile hairs found
    above the eyes, on muzzle, behind carpus
  152. what are the upper and lower eyelids called
    superior and anferior palpebrum
  153. what is the opening surrounded by the eyelids
    palpebral fissure
  154. what is the clear rostral part of the eyeball
  155. list 3 fxn of the cornea
    a. physical barrier b. let light into the eye c.refract the light
  156. what is the void in the center of the iris
  157. what is the colored part of the eye
  158. how does the third eyelid protect the eye
    covers eye when eyeball is retracted
  159. what is the general structure rostral to the eyes called
  160. what is the groove in the upper lip and btwn the nostrils
  161. what are the fxns of the teeth in dogs
    weapons and prehensile tools
  162. how do dogs eat their food
    grasp, tear and gulp with little mastication
  163. list the type of teeth and their abbreviations
    incisors, canines, cheek teeth, premolars, molars
  164. what is the muscular organ filling the oral cavity that's used for prehension and lapping up fluid
  165. what is the tissue surrounding the neck of the teeth
  166. the ears can be directed to sounds ___ of each other
  167. what is the flap of cartilage and skin of the visible part of the ear
  168. of what does the bony thorax consist
    thoracic vertebrae, ribs, and sternum
  169. what is formed by the sternebrae on the ventral sufrace of the chest
  170. name the cranial, most sternebrae
  171. what is the caudal end of the sternum which is made of cartilage
    xiphoid process
  172. name the last rib on each side not attached to the costal arch
    free or floating rib -unique to dog
  173. where do u palpate the floating ribs on the standing dog
    caudal and dorsal to the costal arch
  174. what are the mammary glands of the dog called
  175. list the mammae of the dog
    2 pairs, thoracic, 2 pairs: abdominal and 1 pair inguinal
  176. what is the base of the tail on the top line of the body called
    tail head
  177. what is the perineum
    closes the pelvic outlet around the terminal parts of the urogenital and digestive tracts
  178. what does the external perineum or perineal regiong include
    anus and vulva in the female -even though the vulva projects below the level of the pelvic floor - to just above scrotum in dog
  179. what are the boundaries of the perineum
    base of tail: doral; tuber ischii -whorls of hair. later ; past the vulva in the female and to the base of the scrotum in the male -past in cats: ventral
  180. what is the exit of the GI tract located right below the tail
  181. where are the specific openings of the anal sacs
    mucocutaneous junctions - where the mucous membrane meets the skin- at the 4 and 8 o clock position
  182. what is the proper name of the arm pit
  183. what is the proper name of the arm
  184. with what is the word brachium easy to confuse
    brachy -meaning short
  185. what is the proper name of the forearm
  186. what structure does the carpus, metacarpus, and digits compose
  187. what is the area btwn the back legs on the stomach
    inguinal region
  188. where would u find the tibia and fibula
    crus or true leg (gaskin)
  189. what is the distal part of the hind limp consisting of the tarsus, metatarsus, and digits called? what does it correspond to in humans
    pes, the human foot
  190. what is the common name for the tarsus
  191. what tough, thickened common integument does a dog walk on
    foot pads
  192. man is plantigrade, what are dogs
  193. what does digitigrade mean
    stand on their digits
  194. what is the thickening over the palmar surface of the carpus?
    carpal pad
  195. what is the very large single, triangular-shaped pad palmar to the metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal junction
    metacarpal/metatarsal pad
  196. what are the pads on the distal end of each digit
    digital pads
  197. name the rudimentary first digits on the fore and sometimes hind limbs
    dew claws
  198. which limbs are more likely to have dewclaws
  199. what are the spaces between the digits
    interdigital spaces
  200. what is the modified epidermis enclosing the dog's ungual process
  201. name the toughest skin of carnivores
  202. how is the visible image created
    passage of ionizing radiation - energy through the body, interaction of the excaped radiation with intensifying screens, the action of subsequent emitted light with film, and the effect of developing chemicals
  203. a radiograph is basically a negative therefore, the whiter or darker, the film is tells us what
    • lighter: more underexposed
    • darker: more overexposed
  204. how does a radiograph machine create a directed beam of electrodes
    passes electrons from a cathode thru a vacuum to hit the anode giving off x rays -photons - as a beam and creating heat. beam leaves lead box thru shuttered opening
  205. describe a radiographic cassette
    holds the radiograph film sandwiched btwn intensifying screens
  206. how is the object to be radiographed placed in relationship to the x ray machine and the cassette
    placed on the cassette between it and the tube head
  207. what is the part of the x ray machine allowing restriction of the size of the beam leaving the machine
  208. describe a radiograph film
    a piece of plastic with a bilayer of silver halide emulsion
  209. how does the silver alide emulsion on a radiographic film react with x ray or light and become a readiograph
    xray/ light activates silver halide process: developer crystallizes activated silver halide = silver medal, which appears black, sticks to the plastic. fixer clears unreacted silver halide leaving only the plastic film
  210. what is a fluorescent light source for viewing radiographs
  211. what is a strong source of light placed behind the film to view over exposed areas -darker than desire
    spotlight or hot light
  212. what are the 3 things that can happen to the part of the beam hitting the object
    reflection -scatter, further transmission- penetration, absorption
  213. what is scatter
    reflection or compton scatter: the redirection of a percentage of the primary beam striking an object's surface
  214. what affects penetration and transmittance
    bth the object's thickness and density
  215. what is the inverse square law
    intensity varies with the square of the distance or doubling the distance quarters the effective power
  216. what is divergence in relationship to radiology
    spreading of the primary beam or scatter as it moves away from the source
  217. b/c of divergence in radiology, how does placement on the cassette affect the radiograph
    closer the object is to the cassette, the less divergence, thus, the smaller -closer to normalsize - and sharper its image -farther from the cassette, the larger magnification effect and fuzzier
  218. what is radiographic opacity
    degree of whitening of a film caused by xrays passing thru a part
  219. what determines a part's radiographic density
    parts density and thickness
  220. is an underexposed or an over exposed film better, y?
    overexposed, if not in film no way to get it in, bit if in may see with a spotlight
  221. what is denser fat or water
    water - fat floats
  222. how does the heart appear radiographically, y?
    solid gray shadow disc, as fluid filled ventricles not demarcated from the soft tissue walls
  223. what are the water densities seen in radiographs
    soft tissue densities- viscera, musclees and fluids, all appear similar not easily distinguished
  224. can blood, urine, chyle, exudates and transudates be distinguished from each other radiographically
  225. what can cause a darker shadow than expected on a radiograph
    decrease in the subject density or its size
  226. what is a structure that allows most of the xrays to pass thru it, resulting in a dark shadow on the film
    radiolucent - dark
  227. what type of structure blocks most of the xrays resulting in a white shadow on the film
    radiopaque - white
  228. what id does a film need in addition to r and l markers
    labe identifying the client, animal, date, and facility performing the study and if a timed study, the time elapsed after the procedure started
  229. what can be used to properly place the animal in relation to beam direction without having to use people
    sand bags and positioning devices
  230. some studies, such as abdominal radiographs, are comprised by food and fecal material in the gi tract. what preparation should be done in these cases
    withhold food twelve hours to prior to radiography and perhaps using an enema
  231. what are artifacts -made by human hand - on radiographs
    not part of the animal, ex dirt, wet hair, ointments, or iodine, static discharge, processing mistakes, and physical damage to screens or films
  232. what can be done to minimize artifacts on radiographs
    clean the animal first and care with films
  233. what should be foremost in ur mind whenever radiographing
  234. although invisible, xrays are very dangerous and additive over time, so general rule is
    never place any part of body in the primary beam. wear lead aprons, gloves and stand behind a lead shield whenever possible to block secondary scatter radiation
  235. to max safety what is the rule about the primary beam
    always collimated to no larger than the size of the cassette or regiong being studied
  236. how is the beam dierction used for naming radiographic views
    first passes into the body or part, followed by where it exits the body or body part to reach the film
  237. how do films shot from an opposite direction look
    difficult to differentiate without markers. a cr/ca view and ca/cr view will look identical in small animals b/c radiographs have no depth
  238. how is a lateral medial view taken
    beam enters the lateral side and leaves the medial side
  239. how are lateral views of the small animal limbs usually taken
    usually from medial to lateral so limb can be put on the cassette
  240. how are ca/cr or posterior/anterior taken
    beam enters caudal/post side and exits cranial/ant of limb above the carpus/tarsus
  241. how are lateral body cavity films named
    named for where the beam exits the body: animal in left lateral recumbency -r side up, l side down - left lateral projection
  242. what structures are silhouetted by craniocaudally, dorsopalmar, or dorsoventral beam direction
    lateral and medial structures
  243. silhouetted caudal and cranial structures indicate the beam was directed how
    lateromedially or mediolaterally - accessory carpal bone silhouetted
  244. what helps you orient the views and indicate the direction of the beam
    anatomical landmarks
  245. what does silhouetted mean when discussing radiographs
    edges of a structure are contrasted against air or soft tissue
  246. how should films be read instead of looking at the lines, grays and shadows to try to identify the anatomic structure they represent
    work from a list of the structures that you expect to see and locate each in a specific order. the first approach will miss agenesis -absence - or an organ b/c there will be nothing to see
  247. what are broken bones called and when do they heal in young and old animals
    fractures - young 4-6 weeks, old 8 weeks
  248. healing of a fx begins with the formation of a ___
  249. what can look radiologically identical to osteomyelitis
    bone tumors/osteosarcoma - irregular sunburst appearance
  250. how do u differentiate radiographically identical looking bone infections or tumors
    a bone biopsy and culture
  251. what is the #1 bone tumor in small animals
  252. what characterizes an early osteosarcoma? what does this necessitate
    early metastasizes so chest radiographs needed. radiology shows rough and irregularly sunburst appearance
  253. what is the bulging of the sheath due to a pathological increase in synovial fluid
    hygroma of the tendon sheath
  254. list 3 common sites of osteochondrosis in dogs
    shoulder -caudal head, elbow -medial condyle of humerus, stifle - medial or lateral femoral condyle, and tarsus - medial trochlear of the talus
  255. what is an infection in a joint with bacteria, virus and or fungus that causes cartilage damage
    septic arthritis - bacterial or infectious
  256. define djd
    progressive deterioration of articular cartilage due to many causes - trauma, age, oc, infection
  257. how does djd start
    synovitis: results in progressive degradation of cartilage
  258. how does djd appear radiographically
    marginal osteophyte - new bone at joint capsule attachment - formation is the hallmark,subchondral bone sclerosis or irregularity, and narrowing of joint space
  259. what is and unhealed fx, having all the structurs of a synovial joint
    false joint - tx requires resection, graft, and compression flexion
  260. what is an articular fx
    fx that passes thru the articular cartilage
  261. what cause lyme disease, borrelliosis, what type of disease is it, what are clinical signs, and how is it tx'ed
    caused by a spirochete carried by a tick, multisystem disease with clinical signs ranging from asymptomatic to chronic recurrent, intermittent lameness arthritis and fever. tetracycline results in rapid clinical improvement -good prognosis
  262. what is a rare disease of cats due to a raw liver diet or excessive vitamin A supplementation? give mechanisms and signs
    hypervitaminosis A; inhibits calcification of the skeleton, resulting in lameness and neck or joint stiffness
  263. what are 2 types of angular limb deformities
    valgus and varus
  264. what are the classic signs of tetanus

    • pump handle tail, saw horse stance, lockjaw and sardonic grin
    • toxin passes up nerves and then spinal cord blocking inhibitory neurons and resulting in tonic/clonic muscle spasms
  265. define tremor

    intention tremor
    small, rapid, alternating movements at rest

    a tremor that becomes worse with initiation of a movement and disappears at rest
  266. what does an intention tremor indicate
    cerebellar disease
  267. what is the most common nystagmus
    most commonly, it is a rhythmic jerking with a fast and slow component
  268. how is nystagmus described
    by the direction of the quick component
  269. how do the eyes move with nystagmus at rest
    eyes move to the side of the lesion and snap back
  270. what does nystagmus at rest indicate
    abnormality, usually indicates vestibular dysfunction
  271. define myoclonus - flexor spasm
    coarse jerking movements of muscle groups at rest
  272. define dysmetria
    improper measuring of distance in muscular activity, either too short or too long a range or motion - goose stepping
  273. what type of disease causes dysmetria
    cerebellar disease - especially hypermetria
  274. what is paralysis of the orbicularis oculi and loss of lacrimation the most vital results of facial nerve paralysis
    drying of eye, animals not vain
  275. what is miosis
    constriction of pupil
  276. what is enophthalmos
    sinking of eyeball
  277. what is ptosis of the upper eyelid
    drooping of upper eyelid
  278. what LN are located in the cranial mediastinum
    cranial mediastinal LN
  279. why are LN important indicators of infection
    respond to pathogens they filter by enlargements
  280. why is care taken when evaluatin enlargement of LN
    large variations in size btwn individuals and even sides of the same animal
  281. where can neoplastic cells metastasize by lymph channels
    lungs - thru general circulation - also to more centrally located LN
  282. why are needle or surgical biopsies of LN performed
    to evaluated changes for diagnostic purposes
  283. why are LN cut and checked during meat inspection and necropsy
    checked for changes in color and consistency indicting pathogenic processes
  284. what normal structures can be mistaked for lytic -dissolved - areas of the cortex
    nutrient foramina
  285. what should be done if question arise from a radiograph of a limb
    shoot a comparison films of opposite limb
  286. what does the lateral view highlight
    cranial and caudal or dorsal and palmar/plantar surfaces of bones
  287. what are radiographic landmarks for the lateral side of the limb
    spina of scapula, greater tubercle of humerus, distal ulna, accessory carpal bone
  288. what are radiographic landmarks for the medial side of the thoracic limb
    radial carpal bone, dewclaw
  289. what are caudal/palmar landmarks of the forelimb
    head of humerus, olecranon, accessory carpal
  290. what does the craniocaudal or dorsopalmar view highlight
    medial and lateral structures of the limb
  291. what 2 normal structures that can be mistaken for fx in the forearm
    anconeal process of ulna, sesamoid. bones of digits or lateral collateral ligament of the elbow, accessory ossicle of caudal scapula
  292. what is a thological osseous outgrowth seen radiographically
    osteophyte/enthesiophyte/bone spur
  293. do you look for radiographic changes in the cartilage in osteochondrosis (OC)
    no can't see, check subchondral bone
  294. list 2 of 4 common sites of OC
    #1 shoulder, medial humeral condyle, medial and lateral femoral doncyle, proximal medial trochlea
  295. what is the #1 site for OC in the dog, describe appearance compared to normal
    • caudal aspect of the head of the humerus
    • -normal: smooth and round, with no flattening
    • -OCD: flattening or cratering with subchondral bone sclerosis and or joint mouse
  296. what can the cat's clavicle be mistaken for in a lateral radiograph
    bone in the esophagus
  297. what can premature closure of either proximal or distal radial physis cause?
    subluxation of the humeral radial joint
  298. where is osteochondrosis of the elbow located
    medial condyle of the humerus
  299. what is ununited anconeal process
    failure of anconeal process to unite with ulna after 5 months of age
  300. what is fragmented medial coronoid process
    improper development and fragmentation of cartilaginous precursor
  301. how are the medial and lateral epicondyles of the humerus differentiated in a lateral radiograph
    medail "squared" and extend further caudally than rounded lateral
  302. what is the location of most fx of the humerus
    shaft -diaphysis
  303. what hinders retraction of the median nerve and brachial artery during sx in the cat
    they pass thru the supracondylar foramen
  304. what can cause premature closure of a growth plate
    injury to physis
  305. what happens if there is premature closure of the distal ulnar physis
    cranial curvature of the radius and subluxation of elbow
  306. what is the quick that bleeds if a horny claw is cut too short
    artery in the dermis over ungual process
  307. how is cuttine the quick prevented when trimming pigmented and unpigmented claws
    • pigmented: shave off layers until white are reached -distal to quick - then use 1st to judge the rest
    • unpigmented: don't cut into visible pink core
  308. what 2 methods of declawing ensures removal of the ungual crest
    remove all to p3 or all, including ungual crest, but base of p3
  309. how is a declaw operation performed basically
    guillotine ail clipper, blade in dorsal distal interphalangeal joint and other distal to digital pad
  310. briefly describe how a dewclaw is removed in a neonate
    prep, cut dewclaw from metatarsal bones, single absorbable suture
  311. what is an unhealed fx, having all the structures of a synovial joint
    false joint
  312. what is an articular separation called
    luxation, subluxation, or dislocation
  313. with what does the shoulder joint communicate in the canine
    intertubercular -bicipital, bursa
  314. wat helps prevent luxation of the shoulder
    thickenings of joint capsule -glenohumeral ligaments - and adjacent muscles
  315. why is lateral luxation more likely of the dog's elbow
    lateral epicondyle is smaller than medial
  316. define ununited anconeal process
    failure of anconeal process to unite with ulna after 5 months of age
  317. when does the anconeal process unite in german shepherds
    by 5 months
  318. what can fragmented medial coronoid process cause
    degeneration of elbow joint
  319. what muscle is incised to open the elbow laterally
  320. how can pus move from one area to another
    along fascial planes
  321. how can a neck infection spread to the thorax
    migrate down fascial planes to the thorax
  322. how are fascial planes used in sx
    used as cleavage planes to reach deep structures relatively free of blood
  323. how do u determine unilatearl atrophy of shoulder muscles
    compare muscles on both side by palpation
  324. at what level is it easier to amputate the forelimb and why
    scapular removal is faster and easier than shoulder disarticulation
  325. why is leaving the scapula when amputating the forelimb cosmetically unacceptable in short haired breeds
    atrophy = unsightly bony prominences
  326. how do dogs do on 3 limbs
    most adapt well larger the animal the harder
  327. what is a tenetomy
    transecting a tendon
  328. how is the superficial cervical LN palpated in a dog
    retract arm and palpate ln deep to brachiocephalicus and cranial to supraspinatus mm, just dorsal to level of acromion
  329. how is the accessory axillary LN palpated if it is present
    lay hand flat on thorax caudal to arm and stroke caudally
  330. why can a broken neck result in respiratory paralysis
    phrenic nerve to diaphragm arises from cervical and brachial plexuses
  331. does the sensation to caudolateral aspect of the arm rule out complete brachial plexus avulsion, y?
    no, because are innervated by the intercostobrachialis nn, which doesn't arise from the brachial plexus
  332. what results from damage to the suprascapular nerve
  333. what is sweeney
    atrophy of supraspinatus and infraspinatus mm =prominent scapular spine- suprascapular n damage
  334. where are high and low radial nerve injuries located
    hight: before triceps, low after triceps
  335. what are signs of high radial nerve paralysis
    inability to bear weight on limb, dropped elbow and knuckling over on digits
  336. signs of low radial nerve damage
    knuckling over on digits
  337. to what common condition is low radial nerve paralysis a sequela
    fx to the humerus
  338. what are 2 ways to tell if a nerve is damaged
    loss of skin sensation and loss of motor innervations - loss of fxn or spongy feel to muscles
  339. what sensory loss is diagnostic for radial nerve injury
    loss of sensation on dorsal manus
  340. how is knuckling of radial nerve paralysis compensated
    flip the limb as it is advanced
  341. how is loss of motor neurons of the limbs determined
    observance of gait, depression of tone and relexes, palpation of muscle atrophy
  342. how is loss of sensory neurons determined
    analgesia - loss of sensation
  343. what is the most cranial aspect of the upper forelimb
    point of the shoulder/greater tubercle
  344. what palpable process separates the lateral surface of the scapula
    spine of the scapula
  345. what is the palpable distal end of the spine of the scapula just proximal to the point of the shoulder
  346. what is the projection on the palmar and lateral side of the carpus
    accessory carpal bone
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