What is reactive attachment disorder?
An illness characterized by serious problems in emotional attachments to others beginning before age 5. Symptoms children may show include resisting comfort and affections by parents, being superficially engaging and overly friendly with strangers, having poor peer relationships in destructive behavior to themselves and to others.
What are the 3 prenatal stages? Explain them.
1) Germinal Stage- the first stage of prenatal development and refers to the 2 week period following conception.
2) Embryonic Stage - the second stage of the prenatal period and spans the 2-8 weeks that follow conception; during this stage, cells divide and begin to differentiate into bone, muscle, and body organs.
3) Fetal Stage - 3rd stage in prenatal development, beging 2 months after conception and last until birth
What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)?
- Results from a mother drinking heavily during pregnancy, especially in the first 12 weeks. Physical changes: Short stature, flattened nose, and short eye openings.
- Neurological changes: Fewer brain connections within the brain structure
- Behavioral problems: hyperactivity, impulsive behavior, deficits in information processing and memory, alcohol and drug use, and poor socialization.
What piaget's theory?
From early on, a child acts like a scientist who is actively involved in making guesses or hypotheses about how the world works.
Piaget's cognitive stages refer to 4 different stages- sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations. Each is more advanced than precediing stage because it in involves new reasoning and thinking abilities.
Piaget's Stages of congnitive development
Sensorimotor stage- (birth to age 2) Infants interact with and learn about their social environments by relating their sensory experiences to their motor actions (mouthing grasping)
Preoperational stage - (2 to 7 years old) Children learn to use symbols, such as words or mental images, to solve simple problems and to think or talk about things that are not present.
Concrete - (7 to 11 years old) Children can perform a number of logical mental operations on concrete objects (ones that are physically present)
Formal operations - (12 years through adulthood) Adolescents and adults develop the ability to think about and solve abstract problems in a logical manner.
What are the psychosocial stages of Erikson?
- 1) Trust vs Mistrust
- 2) Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
- 3) Initiative vs Guilt
- 4) Industry vs Inferiority
- 5) Identity vs Role Confusion
Trust vs Mistrust
Period: Early infancy-birth through 1st year
If an infant has needs met by parents, they will develop basic trust. If parents neglect those needs, then the infant will see the world as uncaring and become mistrustful
Autonomy vs Shame Doubt
Period: Late infancy - If a child's parents wish for them to explore, they will gain a sense of independence. If the child explores disprove of his explorations they may develop feelings that independence is bad and feel shame and doubt.
Initiative vs Guilt
Period: Early childhood - 3-5 years
If parents encourage initiative, child will develop ability to plan and initiate new things. If parents discourage initiative, he may feel uncomfortable or guilty and my develop a feeling of being unable to plan his future
Industry vs Inferiority
Period: Middle and late childhood - 5 -12 yers
If child applies themselves to completing tasks, they will develop a feeling of industry. If the child has difficulty applying themselves, they may have a feeling of inferiority.
Identity vs Role Confusion
Refers to the change from childhood to adolescence where we develop more purposeful, responsible, and planned behavior. If a child makes the transition a success, they will have confidence and positive identity. If unsuccessful, he will experience role confusion which results in low self esteem and becoming socially with drawled.
How can parents help fearful children?
Parents should be very caring and supportive and to consistently help their inhibited children deal with minor stressors. If parents avoid becoming too anxious, overprotective, or angry at their children's extreme fearfulness, and timidity, there will be a better chance that the inhibited child will become less anxious in adolescence.
What are the 5 stages of Freud's psychosexual theory?
- 1) Oral Stage
- 2) Anal Stage
- 3) Phallic Stage
- 4) Latency Stage
- 5) Genital Stage
Period: Early infancy - first 18 months of life
When the infant's pleasure seeking is centered on the mouth.
Period: 1.5 years to 3 yrs old
Infant's pleasure seeking is centered on the anus and it's functions of elimination.
Period: 3-6 yrs old
Infants pleasure seeking is centered on the genitals.
Period: Age 6 - puberty
Child represses sexual thoughts and engages in nonsexual activities, such as developing social and intellectual skills.
Period: Puberty - Adulthood
When individual has reviewed sexual desires that he or she seeks to fulfill through relationships with members of the opposite sex.
What is social cognitive theory?
Emphasized the importance of learning through observation, imitation, and self-reward in the development of social skills, interactions, and behaviors.
According to theory, it is not necessary that you perform any observable behaviors or receive any external rewards to learn new social skills because many of your behaviors are self-motivated, or intrinsic.
What is resiliency?
Refers to various personality, family, or environmental factors that compensate for increased life stresses so that expected problems do not develop.
What is Gender Identity?
Refers to the individual's subjective experience and feelings of being a female or male.