1. Facial nerve emerges from what foramen?
  2. Maxillary branch (V2) of the trigeminal nerve goes through what foramen?
    Foramen rotundum
  3. Mandibular branch (V3) of the trigeminal nerve goes through what foramen?
    Foramen ovale
  4. Middle meningeal artery goes through what foramen?
    Foramen spinosum
  5. What vessels form the circle of Willis?
    Posterior cerebral, posterior communicating, internal carotid (turn into middle cerebral), anterior cerebral, anterior communicating
  6. Where do the Posterior cerebral arteries originate?
    Basilar artery
  7. Where do the Anterior and Middle cerebral arteries originate?
    Internal carotid artery
  8. What nerves run in the cavernous sinus?
    CN III, CNIV, CN V1 and V2
  9. What is the main action of the masseter muscle?
    close the jaw
  10. What is the main action of the tmeporalis muscle?
    Elevates mandible, and retracts mandible
  11. Action of the lateral pterygoid muscle?
    Opens jaw, depresses chin, swings jaw from side to side, produces larger lateral chewing motions
  12. Action of the medial pterygoid?
    Acts with masseter to eleveate mandible and protrudes jaw
  13. Where does the facial vein drain?
    Internal jugular vein
  14. What nerves runs along the posterior aspect of the thryoid gland?
    recurrent laryngeal
  15. What is the usual source of epidural bleeding?
  16. What is th usual source of subdural bleeding?
  17. Where do the cranial sinuses drain into?
    Internal jugular vein
  18. What glands are on the posterior apect of the thyroid gland?
    Parathyroid glands
  19. Facial nerve courses through what structure?
    Parotid gland
  20. Knife wound near the anterior surface of anterior scalene muscle would injur what nerve?
  21. Thyroidectomy, attempting to ligate the superior thyroid arteries, the nerve that courses close to this artery is:
    External laryngeal nerve

    • Which is infrahyoid muscle that is innervated by branches of the ansa cervicalis:
    • Sternohyoid

    • Which would normally be found in the carotid sheath
    • Internal jugular vein (sympathetic trunk is closley related, not inside)
  22. Accessory nerve to the right SCM injured by gunshot, most likely finding of what motor deficit?
    Weakness in turning head to the left

    • During surgery to thyroid gland, the surgeon should be concerned about damaging a structure that is located close to the posterior aspect of the gland, what structure:
    • Recurrent laryngeal nerve
  23. What are the content of the carotid sheath?
    Internal jugular vein, external carotid artery, vagus nerve
  24. What are the infrahyoid muscles?
    Sternohyoid, Sternothyroid, Thyrohyoid, Omohyoid (superior and inferior bellies)
  25. What are the suprahypid muscles?
    Mylohyoid, DIgastric (anterior and posterior bellies), Stylohyoid
  26. What nerves traverse the floor of the posterior triangle of the neck?
    Accessory nerve to the trapezius and the brachial plexus can be seen between anterior and posterior scalene
  27. Function of Suprahyoid muscles
    pull the hyoid up, larynx goes with it
  28. Function of Infrahyoid muscles
    depress the hyoid-laryngeal apparatus
  29. What is th eorigin of ansa cervicalis?
    C1-C3 of cervical plexus
  30. What nerve courses with the ansa cervicalis for part of its length?
  31. What is the origin of te phrenic nerve?
  32. What gives main blood suply for the face and neck?
    External carotid artery
  33. What is the main blood supply to the thyroid gland?
    inferior thyroid artery (from thyrocervical trunk) and superior thyroid artery (from external carotid artery)
  34. What does the cervical plexus provide innervation for?
    sensory to skin on neck and head, supra and infrahyoid muscles, deep neck muscles, phrenic nerve and ansa cervicalis
  35. Where is the retropharyngeal space?
    in front of prevertebral fascia
  36. Maxillary artery
    enters skull through foramen spinosum, supplies the cranial dura mater (branch from maxillary artery)
  37. Facial Nerve (CN VII)
    Enters skull through stylomastoid foramen
  38. Cavernous sinus
    located in middle cranial fossa lateral to body of sphenoid recieves superior ophthalmic vein and sphenoparietal sinus
  39. Straight sinus
    formed by the union of inferior sagittal sinus and great cerebral vein
  40. Supraclavicular nerves
    from C3, C4
  41. Carotid sheath
    fascial compartment contains internal jugular vein, common/internal carotid artery, vagus nerve, some deep cervical lymph nodes, and the inferior root of an ansa cervicalis
  42. Anterior triangle
    Bounded by the anterior cervical midline, inferior border of the mandible, and sternocleidomastoid
  43. Submandibular triangle
    Bordered by the anterior and posterior bellies of the digastric and the inferior border of the mandible- hypolgossal nerve courses deep in this triangle
  44. Carotid triangle
    Bordered by the posterior belly of the digastric, superior belly of the omohyoid, and the upper part of sternocleidomastoid, contains external carotid artery
  45. Muscular triangle
    bordered by the superior belly of the omohyoid, anterior cervical midline, and the lower part of sternocleidomastoid; contains the sternohyoid, sternothyroid, and thyrohyoid muscles
  46. Submental triangle
    bordered by the anterior bellies of the digastric and body of the hyoid
  47. Posterior triangle
    Bordered by SCM, clavicle, anterior border of trapezius; accessory nerve descends across the triangle on levator scapulae
  48. Innervation of Sternocleidomastoid
    Accessory nerve
  49. Action of SCM
    laterally flexes head and neck and rotates head and neck to opposite side
  50. Infrahyoid muscles
    sternohyoid, omohyoid, thyrohyoid, sternothyroid
  51. Innervation of infrahyoid muscles
    ansa cervicalis
  52. Suprahyoid muscles
    stylohyoid, digastric, mylohyoid, geniohyoid
  53. Stylohoid innervation
    facial nerve
  54. Digastric innervation
    posterior belly of facial nerve, anterior belly of nerve to mylohyoid, branch of mandibular division of trigeminal nerve
  55. Mylohyoid innervation
    nerve to mylohyoid
  56. Action of suprahyoid muscles
    elevation of hyoid, larynx, phraynx, motions used for vocalization and deglutition, assist in opening mouth when hyoid is fixed by infrahyoid muscles
  57. Branches of the External Carotid Artery
    Superior thryoid, lingual, facial, TERMINAL BRANCHES: Maxillary and superficial temporal arteries
  58. Vertebral artery
    Branches off subclavian, ascends to the angle between scalenus anterior and longus colli, and then traverses the transverse foramina of the upper six cervical vertebrae
  59. Branches of subclavian artery
    Vertebral, internal thoracic, thyrocervical trunk
  60. Inferior thyroid artery
    Branch off thyrocervial trunk ascends along the medial border of scalenus anterior, posterior to the carotid sheath, and then loops inferiorly to the thyroid gland
  61. Blood supply to thyroid gland
    superior thyroid artery (from external carotid) and inferior thyroid artery (from thyrocervical trunk)
  62. Venous drainage of thyroid gland
    internal jugular vein (via superior and middle thyroidvein) and brachiocephalic vein (via inferior thyroid vein)
  63. Lymphatic drainage of thyroid gland
    Deep cervical lymph nodes
  64. Action of Masseter Muscle
    elevation of mandible
  65. Innervation of Masseter muscle
    masseteric nerve (branch of mandibular nerve from CNV, trigeminal)
  66. Mandibular nerve
    branch of trigeminal (only branch that has motor fibers)
  67. Branches of the trigeminal nerve (CNV)
    opthalmic, maxillary, mandibular provide cutaneous innervation of the face
  68. Action and Innervation of Temporalis
    elevation and retraction of the mandible innervated by the anterior an dposterior temporal nerves (branches of mandibular nerve)
  69. What nerve does sensory and motor for the larynx?
  70. What is the main blood supply to the larynx?
    Superior thyroid artery
  71. What symptom results from improper vbration of the vocal folds?
  72. Arytenoid cartilages
    sit on the posterior aspect of the cricoid cartilage
  73. Cricoid cartilage
    ring of cartilage below throid cartilage, gets thicker posteriorly
  74. What vessel does the superior thyroid artery branch off of?
    external carotid
  75. What vessell does the inferior thyroid artery branch off of?
    thyrocervical trunk (branch from the subclavian)
  76. What does the vocalis muscle do?
    part of vocal fold, acts to produce sounds
  77. What nerve innervates the cricothyroid muscle?
    external laryngeal
  78. Action of posterior cricoarytenoid muscles
    abduction of vocal fold
  79. Action of lateral cricoarytenoid muscles
    adduction of vocal ligaments
Card Set
Head and neck flashcards