1. Reactive Attachment Disorder
    Psychiatric illness characterized by serious problems in emotional attachments to others beginning before age 5. Some symptoms include resisting comfort and affection by parents, over friendly with strangers, poor peer relationships, destructive behavior to themselves and others
  2. Three prenatal stages
    1. Germinal Stage- 1st stage of prenatal development and refers to the 2 week period following conception

    2. Embryonic Stage- 2nd stage of the prenatal development and spans the 2-8 weeks that follow conception; during this stage cells divide and begin to differentiate into bone, muscle, and body organs

    3. Fetal Stage- 3rd stage in prenatal development, begins 2 months after conception and lasts until birth
  3. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
    results from a mother drinking too heavily during pregnancy, especially in the first 12 weeks. Results in physical changes, such as short stature, flattened nose, and short eye openings
  4. How can parents help fearful children?
    parents should be caring and supportive of their children and consistently help them deal with minor stressors

    parents should avoid becoming too anxious, overprotective, or angry at their childrens fearfulness
  5. Pigets Theory
    Cognitive Development- how a person percives, thinks, and gains an understanding of his or her world through the interaction and influence of genetic and learned factors
  6. Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development
    Stage 1 Sensorimotor (birth to about age 2)- infants interact with and learn about their enviroments by relating their sensory experiences

    Stage 2 Preoperational (2 to 7 years)- children learn to use symbols, such as words or mental images, to solve simple problems and to thnk or talk about things that are not present

    Stage 3 Concrete (7 to 11 years)- children can perform a number of logical mental operations on concrete objects

    Stage 4 Formal (12 years through adulthood) - adolescents and adults develop the ability to think about and solve abstract problems in a logical manner
  7. 5 Stages of Freuds Psychosexual Theory
    1 Oral Stage- for the first 18 months of life, infant's pleasure seeksing is centered on the mouth

    2 Anal Stage- from about 1 1/2 to 3 years old, infant's pleasure seeking is centered on the anus and its functions of elimination

    3 Phallic Stage- age 3 to 6, infants pleasure seeking is centered on the genitals

    4 Latency Stage- age 6 to puberty, child represses sexual thoughts and engages in nonsexual activites, such as developing social and intellectual skills

    5 Genital State- puberty through adulthood, individual has renewed sexual desires that he or she seeks to fulfill through relationships with members of the opposite sex
  8. Social Cognitive Theory
    emphasizes the importance of learning through observation, imitation, and self-reward in the development of social skills, interactions, and behaviors. many of your behaviors are intrinsic
  9. Resiliency
    various personality, family, or enviromental factors that compensate for increased life stresses so that expected problems do not develop
  10. Gender Identity
    individuals subjective experience and feelings of being a female or male
  11. Social Role Theory
    emphasizes social and cultural influences, states that gender differences between men and women arise from different divisions of labor
  12. Types of child abuse
    the most common is neglect (62%), followed in order by physical abuse and sexual abuse
  13. Major male hormone
    Testosterone- stimulates growth of genial organs and developments of secondary sexual characterisitics
  14. Kohlberg
    he explained the development of moral reasoning in terms of three levels, preconventional, conventional, and postconventional
  15. 3 Levels of Moral Reasoning
    Level 1 (Self-Interest) Preconventional Level- lowest level, has two stages. Stage 1, moral decisions are based primarily on fear of punishment or the need to be obedient; at stage 2, moral reasoning is guided most by satisfying one's seld interest, which may involve making bargains

    Level 2 (Social Approval) Conventional Level- intermediate level has two stages. Stage 3, moral decisions are guided most by conforming to the standards of others we value; stage 4, moral reasoning is determind most by conforming to laws or society

    Level 3 (Abstract Ideas) Postconventional Level- highest level of moral reasoning, has one stage. Stage 5, moral decisions are made after carefully thinking about all the alternatives and striking a balance between human rights and laws of society
  16. Styles of Parenting
    Authoritarian parents- shape, control, and evaluate the behavior and attitudes of their children in accordance with a set standard conduct, usually an absolute standard that comes from religious or respected authorities

    Authoritative parents- direct their children's activities in a rational and intelligent way. They are supportive, loving, and committed, encourage verbal give-and-take, and discuss their rules and policies with their children

    Permissive parents- less controlling and behave with a nonpunishing and accepting attitude toward their children's impulses, desires, and actions; they consult with their children about policy decisions, make few demands, and tend to use reason rather than direct power
  17. Self Esteem
    how much we like ourselves and how much we value our self-worth, importance, attractiveness, and social competence
  18. Schema
    organized mental or cognitive list that includes characteristics, facts, values, or beliefs, about people, events, or objects
  19. Anxiety
    uncomfortable feeling that results from inner cinflicts between the primitive desires of the id and the moral goals of the superego
  20. Divisions of the mind
    Id: pleasure seeker

    Ego: executive negotiator between Id and Superego

    Superego: regulator
  21. Aging process for men
    Become more sexually active but are unable to keep up with their bodies demands. This can lower self esteem and self image
  22. Carl Rogers
    believed Freud emphasized too much on unconscious, irrational forces and on biological urges, and too little emphasis on human potential for psychological growth. Created a new theory that put emphasis on the self or self-concept
  23. Karen Horney
    Psychoanalist who objected Freuds view that women were dependent,vain,ad submissive because of childhood sexual experience. She insisted that the major influence on personality development, whether in men or women cab be found in child-parent social interactions
  24. Humanistic Theory (3 characteristics)
    our capacity for personal growth. development of our potential, and freedom to choose our destiny. characteristics include: phenomenological perspective, holistic view, and self-actualization

    • 1. phenomenological perspective
    • 2. holistic view
    • 3. self-actualization
  25. Aging process for Women
    Menopause where their bodies begin to slow the production of estrogen. Researchers found no correlation between decreased levels of hormones and sexual activity
  26. Projective Tests ; Describe 2
    require individuals to look at some meaningless objects or ambiguous photo and describe what they see. In describing or making up a story about the ambiguous object, individuals are assumed to project both their conscious and unconcious feelings, needs and motives

    • -Rorschach Inkblot Test
    • -Thematic Apperception Test
  27. Love Triangle and what does the Triangular Theory mean
    has three components; passion, intimacy, and commitment. Passion is feeling physically aroused and attracted to someone Intimacy is feeling close and connected to someone; it develops through sharing and communicating. Commitment is making a pledge to nourish the feeling of love and to actively maintain the relationships
  28. Defense Mechanisms the brain can use
    -Freudian processes that operate at unconcsious levels and that use self-deception or untrue explanations to protect the ego from being overwhelmed by anxiety

    -Rationalism, Denial, Repression, Projection, Reaction,Formation,Displacement,Sublimation
  29. Self Actualization
    our inherent tendency to develop and reach our true potentials
  30. Alfred Adler
    a contemporary of Freuds who later became president of the vienna psychoanalitic society. He propose that humans are motivated by social urges (individual psychology)
  31. Conscious vs unconscious
    Conscious- wishes, desires, or thoughts that we are aware of, or can recall, at any given moment

    Unconscious- wishes, desires, or thoughts that, because of their disturbing or threatening content, we automatically repress and cannot voluntarily access
  32. Techniques to uncover Unconscious Mind
    • -Free association
    • -Dream Interpretation
    • -Freudian Slips
  33. ESSAY - How an suicide be prevented?
    Suicide can be prevented in a number of ways. Identifying risk factors which include mood disorder, drug abuse, parental separation, and family turmoil. Identifying risk factors may involve reports from teachers, friends, or family, programs for suicide prevention, 24-hour hotlines, and medical tests. After one or more of the risk factors is identified then they should have a psychiatric evaluation. Removal of lethal means form the individuals home, support 24-hour contact, and a contract for the individual not to hurt themself can also help prevent suicide.
  34. ESSAY- Who abuses children? What problems do they have? What can be done to help?
    30% of children who were abused grow up and become abusive parents. Abusive parents need help learning about developing social relationships, need training in basic care-giving skills, which involves learning how to meet their child's physical, emotional, and social needs. If the abusive parent have drug problems they need long term therapy. Child-Parent interactions need to improve. Abusive parents are more likely to use negative behaviors than prositive behaviors. Parenting programs can help the parents focus on modifying the way they interact with their children.
  35. ESSAY- What are the Psychosocial stages of Erikson and explain each one?
    There are 5 stages in Erikson's psychosocial stages. Stage 1 is Trust vs Mistrust, if a child's parents meets their needs then the child will develop basic trust which will help the child trust people later in life. If the child's parents neglect the child's needs then the child may view their world as uncaring, learn to become mistrustful, and have difficulty dealing with the second stage. Stage 2 is Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt which is a battle of wills between the child's parents wishes and the child's desires to do as they please. Stage 3 is Initiative vs Guilt, if the child's parets encourage initiative the child will learn to assume responsibility and make plans. Stage 4 is Industry vs Inferiority which is if a child completes an assignment/task they will have a feeling of industry. If the child fails to complete assignments/tasks or apply themself they might feel inferiority. Stage 5 is Identity vs Role Confusion and describes if an adolescent can mature and be responsible like an adult they will develop positive identity, if an adolescent is unsuccessful they will experience a role of confusion which can lead to insecurity and low self-esteem.
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