1. prefixes for the first 12 alkanes
    meth-, eth-, prop-, but-, pent-, hex-, hept-, oct-, non-, dec-, undec-, docec-
  2. 5 steps to name alkanes (IUPAC rules)
    • 1.find longest chain
    • 2.number chain, lowest set of numbers is obtained for substituents
    • 3.name and alphabetize the substituents
    • 4.assign number to each substituents
    • 5.complete the name
  3. in case of "en-ol" which carbon receive the lowest number
    carbon with -OH
  4. whats a diol
    alkane with 2 -OH
  5. in "en-one" which carbon gets lowest number
    carbon with the carbonyl
  6. common name for methanoic acid, ethanoic acid, propanoic acid
    formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid
  7. structure isomer
    same chem formulas, different atomic connectivities
  8. stereoisomer
    differ only in spatial arrangement of their atom
  9. order n-butane according to energy level (low to high): gauche, anti, eclipsed, totally eclipsed
    anti, gauche, elipsed, totally eclipsed
  10. the 3 cyclic hexane conformers (lowest to highest energy)
    chair,twisted chair, boat
  11. geometric isomers
    differ in spatial relationship of substituents around a double bond
  12. racemic mixture
    equal amount of both enantiomers
  13. what is the hybridization in CH4? whats the bond angle?
    sp3, 109.5o
  14. how does increasing molecule weight affect the boiling point and melting point of an alkane
    increase them
  15. how does increase branching affect the boiling point of alkane
    lower it
  16. 3 steps of halogenation
    initiation, propagation, termination
  17. what are products of complete combustion of an alkane
    CO2, H2O, heat
  18. how does basicity affect strength of nucleophile
    increase it
  19. steps of Sn1 rxn
    1.molecule dissociates into carbocation and leaving group

    2.nucleophile combines with the carbocation
  20. (t/f) rate of Sn1 rxn depends on concentration of nucleophile
    false, it depends only on the original molecule's concentration
  21. how can Sn1 rate be increased?
    1.stabilize the carbocation by increasing substitution and using a highly polar solvent

    2.use a better leaving group
  22. how does basicity affect the nature of a leaving group
    weaker the base, the better the leaving group
  23. (t/f) Sn1 rxn involving a chiral substrate produce an optically active mixture
    false, a racemic mixture results during Sn1 rxn
  24. Sn1 or Sn2 favored in:
    1.polar protic solvent
    2.polar aprotic solvent
    3.methyl or 1o alkyl halide
    4.3o alkyl halide
    • 1.Sn1
    • 2.Sn2
    • 3.Sn2
    • 4.Sn1
  25. cis or trans has higher melting point? boiling point?
    • trans higher melting point due to its symmetry
    • cis higher boiling point due to its polarity
  26. (t/f)reduction of an alkye on a metal surface (Pd) result in a cis alkene
    false, it results in an alkane
  27. follow Markovnikov's Rule in electrophilic addition of HBr? in free radical addition of HBr?
    electrophilic follows

    free radical does not
  28. what is Huckel's rule? whats anti-aromatic compound?
    aromatic compounds has 4n+2 pi electrons

    anti-aromatic has 4n pi electrons

    n is positive integer
  29. difference between phenyl and benzyl group
    a benzene ring as a substituent- phenyl

    a toluene as a substituent- benzyl
  30. does electron donating group activate or deactivate an aromatic ring? how about electron withdrawing group?
    donating- activate

    withdrawing- deactivate
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