1. Define homeostasis.
    Maintenance of a relatively constant environment
  2. Define atom.
    the basic structural unit of matter
  3. What is the smallest unit of life?
    A cell
  4. Define molecule.
    two or more combined atoms
  5. Are elements subatomic particles?
  6. What constitutes a species?
    • made up of a closely related population
    • interbreed freely under natural conditions, but do not interbreed with other species
  7. What is the ultimate source of energy?
    the sun
  8. What makes up an ecosystem?
    all the organisms and their nonliving environment within a defined area
  9. Know the properties of living things.
    • Complex and Organized
    • Grow and Reproduce
    • Respond to Stimuli
    • Acquire and Use Materials and Energy
    • Use DNA to Store Information
  10. Define Eukaryotic.
    Cells have a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles
  11. Autotroph and Heterotroph
    • autotroph - self feeder, usually photosynthetic
    • heterotroph - other feeder, eats other organisms
  12. Define creationism
    all species on Earth were created in their present form by a supernatural being
  13. Steps of scientific method
    • Observation
    • Question
    • Hypothesis
    • Prediction
    • Experiment or Observation
    • Conclusion
  14. Define hypothesis.
    a supposition based on previous observations that is offered as an explanation to an observation and is used as the basis for experimentation
  15. Know how many electrons the shells of elements can hold.
    • first - 2
    • second - 8
  16. Atomic Number
    number of protons in an element
  17. Isotope
    atom with a different number of neutrons
  18. Compound
    a combination of atoms of different elements
  19. Ionic and Covalent Bonds
    • ionic - electrical attraction between oppositely charged ions (weak)
    • covalent - shared electrons bond atoms (strong)
  20. An acid is what kind of donor?
  21. PH scale
    • values from 0 to 14 used to measure acidity
    • 0-7 = acidic
    • 7 = neutral (water)
    • 7-14 = basic
    • each number equals a ten-fold change
  22. Buffer
    substance that maintains a solution at a constant pH by accepting or releasing H+
  23. Are household cleaning products acid or base?
  24. What do you get when an acid and base are combined?
    Pure water
  25. Ratio of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in Carbohydrates.
  26. Glycogen
    Long, branched polymer of glucose stored by animals in muscles and liver
  27. Cellulose is found in?
    cell wall of plants
  28. What is good cholesterol?
    Cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein packets (HDL)
  29. Examples of where or what you might find proteins in.
    plasma membranes, blood, hair, horns, silk
  30. Parts of a nucleotide?
    • five-carbon sugar
    • phosphate group
    • nitrogen-containing base
  31. What element do proteins have that no other macromolecule has?
  32. Define Active Transport
    using energy to move materials across a membrane
  33. Activation energy
    energy needed to force the electron shells of reactants together before the formation of products
  34. Modern Cell Theory
    All living things are composed of cells
  35. Lysosome
    membrane-bound organelle containing intracellular digestive enzymes
  36. What does the cell do in a hypertonic solution?
    shrivel up
  37. Define phagocytosis
    endocytosis where extensions of a plasma membrane engulf extracellular particles and transport them into the cell
  38. Mitochondria
    organelle bound by two membranes that is the site of the reactions of aerobic metabolism
  39. ATP
    • adenosine triphosphate, molecule composed of sugar ribose, base adenine, and three phosphate groups
    • usable form of energy - major energy carier in cells.
  40. Diffusion
    net movement of particles from high to low concentration
  41. DNA- blueprint of life
    • deoxyribonucleic acid
    • used to store information
    • made of genes
  42. Golgi Complex
    stack of membraneous sacs, found in most eukaryotic cells, that's the site of processing and separation of membrane components
  43. Why do animals need cholesterol?
    component of cell membranes
  44. The building blocks of proteins.
    amino acids
  45. There are how many necessary amino acids?
  46. Define energy
    the ability to do work
  47. Largest component of the cytoskeleton
  48. Potential and Kinetic Energy
    • potential - stored energy, normally chemical
    • kinetic - energy of movement (heat, light, mechanical movement, and electricity)
  49. know the make up of cell membranes.
    phospholipid bilayer, cholesterol, proteins (recognition, receptor, and transport)
  50. What are the individual sacs of chloroplasts called?
  51. Endocytosis
    process where plasma membrane engulfs extracellular material forming membrane-bound sacs that enter the cytoplasm
Card Set
Online Biology Test #1