Maintenance of a relatively constant environment
the basic structural unit of matter
What is the smallest unit of life?
two or more combined atoms
Are elements subatomic particles?
What constitutes a species?
- made up of a closely related population
- interbreed freely under natural conditions, but do not interbreed with other species
What is the ultimate source of energy?
What makes up an ecosystem?
all the organisms and their nonliving environment within a defined area
Know the properties of living things.
- Complex and Organized
- Grow and Reproduce
- Respond to Stimuli
- Acquire and Use Materials and Energy
- Use DNA to Store Information
Cells have a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles
Autotroph and Heterotroph
- autotroph - self feeder, usually photosynthetic
- heterotroph - other feeder, eats other organisms
all species on Earth were created in their present form by a supernatural being
Steps of scientific method
- Experiment or Observation
a supposition based on previous observations that is offered as an explanation to an observation and is used as the basis for experimentation
Know how many electrons the shells of elements can hold.
number of protons in an element
atom with a different number of neutrons
a combination of atoms of different elements
Ionic and Covalent Bonds
- ionic - electrical attraction between oppositely charged ions (weak)
- covalent - shared electrons bond atoms (strong)
An acid is what kind of donor?
- values from 0 to 14 used to measure acidity
- 0-7 = acidic
- 7 = neutral (water)
- 7-14 = basic
- each number equals a ten-fold change
substance that maintains a solution at a constant pH by accepting or releasing H+
Are household cleaning products acid or base?
What do you get when an acid and base are combined?
Ratio of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in Carbohydrates.
Long, branched polymer of glucose stored by animals in muscles and liver
Cellulose is found in?
cell wall of plants
What is good cholesterol?
Cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein packets (HDL)
Examples of where or what you might find proteins in.
plasma membranes, blood, hair, horns, silk
Parts of a nucleotide?
- five-carbon sugar
- phosphate group
- nitrogen-containing base
What element do proteins have that no other macromolecule has?
Define Active Transport
using energy to move materials across a membrane
energy needed to force the electron shells of reactants together before the formation of products
Modern Cell Theory
All living things are composed of cells
membrane-bound organelle containing intracellular digestive enzymes
What does the cell do in a hypertonic solution?
endocytosis where extensions of a plasma membrane engulf extracellular particles and transport them into the cell
organelle bound by two membranes that is the site of the reactions of aerobic metabolism
- adenosine triphosphate, molecule composed of sugar ribose, base adenine, and three phosphate groups
- usable form of energy - major energy carier in cells.
net movement of particles from high to low concentration
DNA- blueprint of life
- deoxyribonucleic acid
- used to store information
- made of genes
stack of membraneous sacs, found in most eukaryotic cells, that's the site of processing and separation of membrane components
Why do animals need cholesterol?
component of cell membranes
The building blocks of proteins.
There are how many necessary amino acids?
the ability to do work
Largest component of the cytoskeleton
Potential and Kinetic Energy
- potential - stored energy, normally chemical
- kinetic - energy of movement (heat, light, mechanical movement, and electricity)
know the make up of cell membranes.
phospholipid bilayer, cholesterol, proteins (recognition, receptor, and transport)
What are the individual sacs of chloroplasts called?
process where plasma membrane engulfs extracellular material forming membrane-bound sacs that enter the cytoplasm