Psychology Ch. 1

  1. Behaviorism
    The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most researchers agree with the first statement but not the second.
  2. Humanistic Psychology
    Historically significant perspective that emphasizes the growth potential of healthy people and the individuals potential for personal growth.
  3. Cognitive Neuroscience
    The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition
  4. Psychology
    The science of behavior and mental processes
  5. Nature-Nurture Issue
    The long standing controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture
  6. Levels of Analysis
    The differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.
  7. Bio-psychosocial Approach
    An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.
  8. Basic Research
    Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
  9. Applied Research
    Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
  10. Counseling Psychology
    A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
  11. Clinical Psychology
    A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
  12. Psychiatry
    A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example: a drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
  13. Hindsight Bias
    The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it. Also known as the I Knew it all along phenomenon.
  14. Overconfidence
    The idea that humans, no matter how sure of what they plan to do, will normally be inaccurate.
  15. Scientific Approach
    Make a Hypothesis, and test it. You need Curious Skepticism.
  16. Wilhelm Wundt
    Established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany
  17. Sigmund Freud
    Personality Theorist and Therapist. Very controversial ideas. Started by talking to women.
  18. Mary Whiton Calkins
    Pioneered memory research. First woman president of the American Psychological Association. Earned her degree at Harvard and they refused to give it to her.
  19. Scientific Method
    Theory, hypothesis, experimental model. Scientific Method
  20. Hypothesis
    A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
  21. 'Operational Definitions
    A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operational defined as "what an intelligence test measures."
  22. Replications
    Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
  23. Case Study
    An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
  24. Survey
    A technique for ascertaining the self reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
  25. Population
    All the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn
  26. Random Sample
    A sample that fairly represents a population because each person has an equal chance of inclusion
  27. Naturalistic Observation
    Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
  28. Correlation
    The extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from +1 to -1
  29. Illusory Correlation
    The perception of a relationship where none exists
  30. Causation
    Not proved by Correlation. The idea that one factor directly influences another
  31. Experimentation
    A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable).
  32. Experimental Group
    In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
  33. Control Group
    The group that is not exposed to the treatment. Used to discover what the experimental group actually experiences.
  34. Double-Blind Procedure
    An experimental procedure in which both the participants and the research staff are absolutely unaware about whether the participants received the treatment or a placebo drug.
  35. Placebo Effect
    Latin for "I shall Please." Experimental results caused by expectations alone. Any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.
  36. Independent Variable
    The variable whose effect is being studied, a drug.
  37. Dependent Variable
    The Outcome factor, which will have changed in response to the independent variable.
  38. Mean, Mode, Median
    Average, most occurring Number, number in the middle
  39. Range and Standard Deviation
    The differences between all the data presented
  40. Normal Curve
    A curve in which the mean mode and median are the same number
Card Set
Psychology Ch. 1
First Test for Psychology