Damage to the brain occuring in utero (before birth) and perinattaly (durring the birth process) as well as after birth
how fast a language is learned
Ommision of grammatical markers. (in speech, agrammataicism is characterized by a "telegraphic qualitly). can occur with damage to certian areas of the left frontal lobe of the brain
The subtle variations of phonemes that occur as a result of contextual influence on how phonemes are produced in different words.
Example: the 2 phonemes /p/ in pop are pronounced differently and are thus phonemes
Munipulation of a breath of air by the oral articulators-including tongue, teeth and jaw- so that it comes out as a series of speech sounds that are combined into words, phrases, and sentences. One of the four systems involved in Speech
The perception of sound, including general auditory perception and speech perception
How the Brain processes any type of auditory informationo (ex: clap of the hands), no just speech
a process by which people aquire 2 first languages. (2 or more for this book) the 2 languages can be learned simultaneously or sequentially. A type of language difference
The overlapping of phonemes during human speech
When speakers who have more than one language in common alternate between the languages. Bilingual children may code switch to fill in lexical or grammatical gaps, for pragmatic effect, or to follow the social norms of their community
ex: english sentence with spanish syntax
The Process of Sharing information amoung individuals. Communicaitonn can involve only language (internet chat) or language, hearing and speech (ex: conversation)
Communication problems that occur when recievers do not provide appropriate types or amounts of feedback or when seners do not attend the feedback
Synonymous with semantics. The meaning of language. The words used and the meaning behind them. One of the 3 domains of Language
Relying on the immediate context or setting, here and now
When a communication breakdown occurs and the sender or reciever adjusts the exchange to mend the breakdown. It requires the reciever to provide ongoing feedback and the sender to monitor the reciever's feedback closely
Also called sensetive period. The window of opportunity during which children develop language most rapidly and with the most ease
Not rellying on the immediate context, or setting, to convey content
Regional or social veriations of a language that differ from one another in terms of their pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar. Dialects can evolve within specific geographic regions or sociocultural ccommunities. A type of language difference
Dedicated solely to a certain task. In the context of language development, domain-specific language processes are dedicated soley to the tasks of comprehending and producing language.
a.) in models of speech production, information about the timing, delivery, and precision of speech output that is relayed back to the origination of the perceptional target and motor schema. It provides information about what is to come next at the perceptual and motor levels. Speakers are seldom aware of feed back on a conscious level.
b.) in models of communication, information provided by the reciever to the sender. The sender responders to this feedback to modulate the flow of communication
How words, sentances, and sounds are arranged and orgranized to convey content. One of the three language domains.
How fast air paritcles move back and forth during the creation of sounds. Pitch. One of the three prosodic characteristics of speech
Language differences relating to gender.
ex.) girls usually begin talking efore boys do. Usualy minor particularly as children move into the preschoool years
General American English (GAE)
Also called Standard American English. Diaect used most commonly in the United states. (i.e., assigned to the highest social status.) includes 39 phenomes
the sensory system that allows speech to enter into and be proccessed by the human brain
Heritable Language Impairment
also known as Primary Language Impairment or Specific Language Impairment. A significant language impirment in the absense of any other developmental difficulty (brain injury, retardation, etc). Affects approximently 7-10% of the children older than age 5. the most common reason for administering early intervention and special education services to toddlers through fourth graders
also called intentional communication. Communication that is relatively more perciese in inten than symbolic communication, but unlike symbolic communication, the realtionship between the communicative behavior and its referent is not arbitrary. Rather, it relies on the shared spatial position amont the sender, the recipient, and the referent. The relationship between the message and its referent is transparent.
Example: when a chimpanzee points to a banana
thoughts or ideas that an individual keeps to himself or herself after they are formulated
How fare apart air particles move when they are going back and forth during the creation of sound. Loudness. One of the three prosodic characters of speech
Also called Iconic communication. Communication that is relatively more perciese in inten than symbolic communication, but unlike symbolic communication, the realtionship between the communicative behavior and its referent is not arbitrary. Rather, it relies on the shared spatial position amont the sender, the recipient, and the referent. The relationship between the message and its referent is transparent. Example: when a chimpanzee points to a banana
a rule governed, code-based tool shared by the members of a community. Used to represent thoughts and ideas to other people who know the code
the variability among language users.
Example: girls speak earlier than boys do.
significant language development difficulties relative to those experienced by children developing normally
a vocabulary system or "mental dictionary" used to convey content. for each word a child learns, he or she creates an entry in the lexicon. The entry contains a series of symbols the compose the word, the sound of the word, the meaning of the word and its part of speech
the use of speech of vocalizations (ex: mm-hmm) to relay information to the sender about his or her message
a repersentation of an unknown event of the basis of the best evidence governing the event
a cognitive science theory about how the human mind is organized within the brain sturctures. It contends that the human brain contains a set of highly specific modules--or regions developed to process specific types of information
aquisition of only one language
the smallest units of language that carry meaning. they are combined to create words.
the rules of language governing the internal organization of words. One of the components of the langaugae domain of form.
the use of eye contact, facial expression, posture, and proximity to relay information to the sender about his or her message. It may supplement linguisitic feedback or stand alone
Language that is spoken. Comprises three domains: content, form, use
the use of pitch, loudness, and pauses, all of which are superimposed over linguistic feedback, to relay information to a sender about his or her message
when a breath of air that has been respirated travels over the vocal cords. One of the four systems involved in speech
the smalles unit of sound that can signal a difference in meaning. in the production of syllables and wordes, a series of phonemes are strung together.
the rules of language governing the sounds used to make syllablews and words. One of the components of the language domain in form
How sounds are organized in words
Communication in which other people assume the relationship wetween a communicaticve behavior and its referent.
Example: when an infant cries, the communicative partner must infer the referent or goal of the communication
the priniciple of combination whereby small number s of discrete units are combined into seemingly infinate novel creations. This prinicple also applies to human activities orther than lanugage-such as mathematics and music
the listener during communication. The person who takes in and then comprehends the information
the aspect of the world to which a word refers.
Example: in english the specific feeling to which the word happy refers
also called dreferential communication. when an individual communicates about a specific entity (an object or event), and the relationship between the entity and its referent (ex. word) is arbitrary. This type of communication is not limited by space or time.
Example: when an infant says "bottle" to request something to dring, the relationship gbetween the word bottle and is referent is arbitrary
the phase of speech that occurs after a breath of air has been respirated and phonated, when the air travels into and vibrates withing the oral and nasal cavitites. One of tfour systems involved in speech
the act of inspiring a breath of air into the lungs, expiring it from the lungs, and allowing it to travel up through the trachea, or windpipe, before it is phonated. One of the four systems involved ins speech
how propt and appropriate a response is. With regard to language development, the promptness, contingency, and appropriateness of caregiver responses to children's bids for communication through words or other means
the species-specific aspect of language that allows people to represent the world. in particular, it allows be to represent decontextualized events
synonymous with content. the rules of language governing the meaning of individual words and word combinations
the speaker during communication. The person who formulates and then transmits the information he or she wants to convey
when something pertians to only one species. Language is strictly a humman capacity and thus species specific
Specific Language Impairment
(SLI) also known as Primary Language Impairment or Heritable Language impairment. A significant language impirment in the absense of any other developmental difficulty (brain injury, retardation, etc). Affects approximently 7-10% of the children older than age 5. the most common reason for administering early intervention and special education services to toddlers through fourth graders
the nuromuscular process by which humans turn language into a sound signal that is transmitted though the air (or another mediam such as a telephone line) to a reciever.
how the brain process speech and language. the ability to understand the sounds and words of a anative language. Studies of speech perception help researchers lean about the kinds of language abilities infants have when they are born and how children use their speech perceoption to learn language
also called dreferential communication. when an individual communicates about a specific entity (an object or event), and the relationship between the entity and its referent (ex. word) is arbitrary. This type of communication is not limited by space or time.Example: when an infant says "bottle" to request something to dring, the relationship gbetween the word bottle and is referent is arbitrary
the rules of language governing the internal orgainization of sentences One component of the laguage domain of form
Traumatic Brain Injury
TBI Damage or insult ot an individual's brain tissue sometime after birth. Ranges from mild (concussion with loss of consciousness for 30 min or less) to severe (accompanied by a coma of 6 hr or more.) cause include infection, disease and physical trauma
research on identical and monozygotic twins used to estimate the contribution of genetics to language development, as well as the heritability of language disorders
the idea that all persons around the world have a cognitive infastructure that they apply to the task of learning language
synonymous with pragmatics. How language is used in interactions with other people to express personal and social needs. One of the three domains of language
thoughts and ideas that an individual writes down after they are formulated