EXAM modules 13 15 16

  1. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale(WAIS)
    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(WISC)
    • most widely used IQ tests
    • items organized into various subtests
    • verbal and performance scores combined
  2. validity
    the test measures what it is supposed to measure
  3. reliability
    refers to consistency: one persons score should be the same on one test as when they take a similar test at a later time
  4. Problems of IQ tests
    • don't measure innate abilities or natural intelligence
    • should not be used to label people
    • there is cultural bias
  5. cultural bias
    the wording of questions and experiences on which the questions are based are more familiar to members of some social groups than to others
  6. nonintellectual factors
    noncognitive factors, such as attitude, experience, and emotional functioning, that may help or hinder performance on tests
  7. reward/pleasure center
    includes several areas of the brain, and involves several neurotramsmitters, especially dopamine.
  8. fixed action pattern
    innate biological force that predisposes an organism to behave in a fixed way in the presence of a specific environmental condition
  9. drive reduction
    some physiological need occurs that creates a state of tension which in turn motivates you to reduce the tension or satisfy the need
  10. paraphilia
    sexual deviations characterized by sexual fantasies involving nonhuman objects, such as sexual attractions to particular articles of clothing
  11. universal emotional expressions
    specific inherited patterns or expressions that signal specific feelings or emotional states, such as smiling signalling a happy state
  12. lie detector (polygraph) tests
    based on the theory that, if a person tells a lie, he or she will feel some emotion, such as guilt or fear. Feeling guilty or fearful will be accompanied by involuntary physiological responses.
  13. Maslow's hierarchy of needs
    • biological needs are placed at the bottom and social needs at the top
    • we satisfy our biological needs before our social needs
  14. instincts
    innate tendencies or biological forces that determine behavior
  15. extrinsic motivation
    engaging in certain activities or behaviors that either reduce biological needs or help us obtain incentives or external rewards
  16. intrinsic motivation
    engaging in certain activities or behaviors because the behaviors themselves are personally rewarding or because engaging in these activities fulfills our beliefs or expectations
  17. sexual preference
    refers to whether a person is sexually aroused primarily by members of his or her own sex, the opposite sex, or both sexes
  18. nature-nurture question
    • asks how hereditary or genetic factors interact with environmental factors in the development of a person's intellectual, emotional, personal, and social abilities
    • both equate to 50% of influence for intelligence, however can vary 10-15 points depending on how heredity interacts with different environments
    • identical twins vs. fraternal twins
  19. raising IQ scores
    • intervention programs-help disadvantaged kids from low socioeconomic classes
    • raises IQ scores because it exposes kids to more of the types of information on IQ tests
    • usually shows an increase in IQ by at least 10 points
  20. 3 categories of mental retardation and prognosis for each
    • 1.) mild mental retardation
    • IQs from 50 to 70 (85%)
    • can master simple occupational skills
    • 2.)moderate mental retardation
    • IQs from 35 to 55
    • can learn to become partially indepent if they are in a family or self-help setting
    • 3.)severe/profound mental retardation
    • IQs from 20-40 (5%)
    • require considerable supervision their entire lives
  21. underachievers
    • score relatively high on tests of ability or intelligence but perform more poorly than their scores would predict
    • researchers found that its not related to economic class
    • have poor self-concept, low self-esteem, can be shy, or depressed
    • may have a fear of failure and lack motivation
  22. major eating disorders and treatment programs available
    • anorexia nervosa
    • refusing to eat and not maintaining weight at 85% of what is expected
    • risk factors include dysfunctional families that want perfection, being very anxious, rigid and compulsive
    • psychological treatments have limited success
    • drugs have not been too useful
    • family therapy has had more of an effect
    • only 30% make fulll recovery, 25% have chronic recurrent symptoms, 5% die from starvation or suicide

    • Bulimia nervosa
    • binge-eating episodes, regularly engaging in vomiting, use of laxatives to lose weight
    • risk factors of pressure to become slim, excessive concern about body image/weight
    • psychotherapy and drug treatment (antidepressants)
    • 50% recover fully
  23. Three hunger factors and how weight is regulated
    • psychosocial
    • eating at certain times or when stressed
    • cultures that you eat everything on the plate

    • genetic
    • we can inherit genes "big boned"
    • we have a genetically fixed set point

    • biological
    • rate of metabolism

    weight is regulated by our diet intake of food and exercise
Card Set
EXAM modules 13 15 16
modules 13 15 16