Pharmaceutics Exam 1

  1. Intravenous amount
    1-10 ml bolus

    0.1-1 liter drip infusion
  2. Intramuscular amount
    1-5 ml
  3. Intradermal amount
  4. Subcutaneous amount
    0.1-0.5 ml
  5. Intrathecal amount
    0.1-0.5 ml
  6. Intraspinal amount
    1-4 ml
  7. Parenteral
    Beyond intestine
  8. Parenteral Formulations
    • administered through 1 or more layers of skin tissue or membrane
    • 25% of drugs administered in hospitals
  9. Advantages of Parenteral Formulations
    • Rapid action
    • complete bioavailability
    • Provide reliable drug administration
    • May achieve local effects
  10. Disadvantages of Parenteral Formulations
    • Pain and discomfort
    • Drug cannot be recovered
    • Need sterilization/quality control
  11. Iatrogenic
    any adverse condition in a patient occuring as the result of treatment by physician or surgeon
  12. Embolism
    sudden blocking of an artery by clot or foreign material which has been brought to its site of lodgment by blood current
  13. Phlebitis
    inflammation of vein. infiltration of the coats of the vein and formation of a thrombus.
  14. vesicant
    causing blisters, blistering drug or agent
  15. pyrogenecity
    detectable presence of pyrogens which are the metabolic byproducts of microorganisms or dead microorganisms.
  16. IA, IV, IS
    only solution, not suspension
  17. Only aqueous preparations are acceptable for the hypo route
  18. William Harvey
    introduced major concept of blood circulation in the body
  19. Christopher Wren
    First person to inject medication
  20. Dr Whitfield
    introduced laminar air flow hood
  21. USP/NF as of 2003 there were ___ injectable products.
  22. IV Push
    Bolus dose
  23. IV Drip
    Continuous or intermittent infusion
  24. IV Piggybacking
    secondary IV tubing for introducing medication into the primary line
  25. Catheters
    • blunt tipped plastic cannulae
    • catheter inside needle
    • catheter outside needle
  26. Intramuscular (IM)
    • Injection into a muscle mass, deep into skeltal muscle
    • - slower onset of action
    • - longer duration of action
  27. IM Injection sites
    Buttocks, lateral thigh, deltoid (2ml max)
  28. Subcutaneous: SC, SQ, Sub-Q or hypo
    • Tissues beneath the layers of skin
    • Anterior surface of thigh
    • outer surface of upper arm
    • lower portion of abdomen
    • slower absorption than IV or IM
    • Volume less than 2 ml
  29. Hypodermoclysis
    avoid dextrose (irritation and incomplete absorption)
  30. Intradermal or intracutaneous (ID, IC)
    • the most superficial layer of skin
    • volume <0.2 ML
  31. Intra arterial (IA)
    • High concentrations delivered directly to major organs or tissues
    • No dilution causes extravasation
    • chemotherapy and radiopharmaceuticals
  32. Intraspinal, Intrathecal (IT)
    Injection into spinal column through intervertebral space
  33. Intraarticular and Intrasynovial
    Injection into a joint space or joint fluid
  34. Intracardiac
    injection into the heart chamber
  35. Incompatibility
    phenomenon that occurs when one drug is mixed with others to produce a product unsuitable for administration to the patient by physico-chemical means.
  36. Physical incompatibility
    • visible change in appearance
    • -Ca2+ and PO4
    • -phenobarbital and fluids with acidic pH
  37. Chemical incompatability
    • chemical degridation upon mixing two drugs
    • -results in toxicity or therapeutic inactivity
    • PCN stable for 24h at pH 6.5
  38. Theraputic Incompatability
    • Response produced other than intended
    • - antagonism between chloramphenicol and PCN
    • -TCN and PCN
    • -warfarin and phytonadione
    • -calcium and digoxin
Card Set
Pharmaceutics Exam 1
Intjectables and Sterile Fluids