1. cells of the nervous system that are specialized for electrical signaling/transmitting information over long distances
    nerve cells/neurons
  2. cells that are not capable of electrical signaling; located in the CNS, consist mostly of neuroglial cells
    supporting cells
  3. structures that interconnect nerve cells to form circuits, formed by a neuron's dendrites and axons
  4. portion of the nerve cell that receives information from axons and brings it into the neuron cell body
  5. portion of the nerve cell that sends information AWAY from the cell body in order to communicate with other neurons; may or may not be covered with a myelin sheath
  6. axonal mechanism that carries signals over long
    distances, self-regenerating wave of electrical activity
    action potential
  7. process by which info encoded by action potentials
    is passed on @ synaptic contacts to the next cell in the pathway
    synaptic transmission
  8. the most abundant type of synapse
    chemical synapse
  9. store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse
    synaptic vesicles
  10. non-neuronal cells that provide support and protection for the brain's neurons, but do not transmit impulses; instead, they modulate the activity of neurons

    critical in aspects of neuronal development
    Neuroglial cells
  11. 3 types of glial cells
    • Astrocytes
    • Oligodendrocytes
    • Microglial cells
  12. glial cells that are restricted to the brain and spinal cord, starlike appearance, maintain an appropriate chemical environment for neuronal signaling
  13. glial cells that lay down myelin (lipid-rich wrapping) around some axons
  14. smaller glial cells derived from hematopoietic stem
    cells, scavenger cells that remove cellular debris from sites of injury or normal cell turnover
    microglial cells
  15. space between the neurons that is occupied by a dense tangle of dendrites, axons terminals, and glial cell processes; the region where most synaptic connectivity occurs
  16. Basic constituents of all neural circuits (3)
    • Afferent neurons
    • Efferent neurons
    • Interneurons
  17. nerve cells that carry info toward the CNS
    afferent neurons
  18. nerve cells that carry info away from the CNS
    efferent neurons
  19. nerve cells that only participate in the local
    aspects of a circuit
  20. 3 types of neural systems
    • sensory
    • motor
    • associational
  21. neural systems like vision or hearing that acquire and
    process info from the environment
    sensory systems
  22. neural systems that allow the organism to respond
    to such info by generating movements
    motor systems
  23. cells and circuits that lie between these well defined input and output systems, carry out complex, poorly characterized brain fxs
    associational systems
  24. the brain and spinal cord make up the __________
    central nervous system
  25. types of nerve cell configuration (2)
    • nuclei
    • cortex
  26. portion of the cerebrum that contains neural cell bodies and neuropil in the brain and spinal cord
    where the action of the cells takes place
    gray matter
  27. portion of the cerebrum that consists of axon tracts,
    tissue through which messages pass between different areas of gray matter within the nervous system
    white matter
  28. mechanical cushion that serves as a constant external environment for neurons and allows the brain to float
    cerebrospinal fluid
  29. connections within the white matter that connect different areas of the cerebrum, may be long or short
    association fibers
  30. fibers that originate in the cortex, and go all the way down to the spinal cord

    largest set of them is the corona radiata
    projection tracts
  31. method of organizing the natural world from an ancient/primitive level to a "modern/advanced" higher level
    based on bias, irrelevant to today's evolutionary biology, because traits are specialized for particular environments, not "Better" or "worse"
    phylogenetic scale
  32. tree-like diagrams of the species representing their genealogy based on sets of shared traits, irrespective of time
  33. between species
  34. within species
  35. system of taxanomic organization in which the location of each taxon indicates only the relative time of its appearance in the fossil record. Based on homologies.
    phylogenetic tree
  36. How do we reconstruct evolutionary relationships?
    using the comparative method and phylogenetic trees
  37. system composed of sensory neurons, which link sensory receptors with processing circuits in the CNS
    peripheral nervous system
  38. nerve cell bodies are bound together into clusters known as _________
  39. the ganglia on the roots of the cranial nerves, containing the cell bodies of sensory neurons
    sensory ganglia
  40. bundles of axons
  41. subdivisions of the central nervous system (7)
    • spinal cord
    • medulla
    • pons
    • cerebellum
    • midbrain
    • diencephalon
    • cerebral hemispheres
  42. components of the brainstem? (3)
    midbrain, pons, medulla
  43. components of the forebrain? (2)
    diencephalon, cerebral hemispheres
  44. Subdivisions of the white matter of the spinal cord (3)
    • Dorsal columns
    • Lateral columns
    • Ventral columns
  45. ridges of the convolutions found in the brain's cerebral hemispheres
  46. valleys between the gyri (convolutions of the cerebral hemispheres)
  47. especially deep sulci
  48. structure composed of a continuous layered or laminated sheet of neurons and supporting cells, about 2 mm thick
    cerebral cortex
  49. lobes of the brain
    • frontal
    • parietal
    • temporal
    • occipital
  50. Most anterior lobe, separated from the parietal lobe by the central sulcus
    Contains the precentral gyrus and primary motor cortex
    Critical in planning responses to stimuli
    Frontal Lobe
  51. inferior to the frontal lobe, separated from it by the lateral fissure
    contains cortex concerned with audition
    deals with highly processed visual info
    critical in recognizing stimuli
    temporal lobe
  52. area hidden beneath the frontal and temporal lobes, can only be seen if these two lobes are pulled apart or removed
    its cortex is concerned with visceral and autonomic function, including taste
  53. lobe that lies behind the central sulcus and above the lateral fissure

    critical to attending to stimuli
    parietal lobe
  54. most anterior gyrus in the parietal lobe, harbors cortex that is concerned with somatic sensation
    postcentral gyrus
  55. cortex that is concerned with bodily sensation
    somatic sensory cortex
  56. lobe primarily concerned with vision
    occipital lobe
  57. tract bridging the brain hemispheres
    contains axons that originate from neurons in both cerebral hemispheres that contact target nerve cells in the opposite hemisphere
    Corpus callosum
  58. highly convoluted cortical structure that is important for memory and learning
  59. processes olfactory info
    pyriform cortex
  60. sulcus that runs from the superior to the inferior aspect of the hemisphere, and separates the parietal and occipital lobes
    parieto-occipital sulcus
  61. divides the medial surface of the occipital lobe
    calcarine sulcus
  62. a long, roughly horizontal sulcus that extends across the medial surface of the frontal and parietal lobes
    cingulate sulcus
  63. its structures are important in the regulation of visceral motor activity, somatic regulation, and emotional expression
    limbic system
  64. structure within the limbic system devoted to the control of homeostatic and reproductive functions, i.e. hunger, thirst, sex drive

    related to the pituitary gland
  65. part of the midbrain that coordinates motor activity, posture, and equilibrium/balance
  66. most visible feature of the cerebellum; a continuous layered sheet of cells folded into ridges and valleys called folia
    cerebellar cortex
  67. lower half of the brainstem that merges into the spinal cord
    deals with autonomic, involuntary functions, such as breathing, heart rate and blood pressure
  68. group of nuclei that act as a cohesive unit in functions including voluntary motor control, procedural learning relating to routine behaviors or "habits," eye movements, and cognitive, emotional functions.
    basal ganglia
  69. collection of nuclei important for emotional processing and reactions, as well as memory
  70. small fiber bundle within each of the hemispheres that interconnects the hippocampus and the hypothalamus
  71. responsible for planning and forethought, prediction, and programming, as well as articulation of speech
    frontal lobes
  72. area of the brain that processes auditory stimuli, and gives rise to musical performance
    temporal lobes
  73. area of the brain that is responsible for visual capacity and processing visual stimuli
    occipital lobes
  74. integrates sensory information from different modalities, particularly determining spatial sense and navigation
    area of the brain that deals with the logic of mathematics
    parietal lobes
  75. deep groove that separates the cerebral hemispheres
    longitudinal fissure
  76. "the peripheral nerves of the head" that connect to the brainstem
    cranial nerves
  77. responsible for the regulation of complex motor functions, respiratory and cardiovascular activity, and sleep-wakefulness and consciousness
  78. structure that is critical in the control of eye movement, postural adjustments, and motor learning
    cognitively has a role in language processing, spatial organization, memory, and personality
  79. cortical region critical for speech production and perception
    left prefrontal cortex
  80. divided into two hemispheres, split down the middle by the hemispheric fissure
  81. substantially thicker than the cerebellar cortex, consisting of six cellular layers--its possession distinguishes mammals from other vertebrates
    cerebral cortex/neocortex
  82. three layered cortex in the hippocampus
  83. structure within the limbic system critical for learning and long-term memory
  84. three-layered cortex, dedicated to processing olfactory signals
  85. cortical areas where the initial processing of somatosensory inputs and initiation of motor outputs occurs
    found in the precentral gyrus
    primary cortical areas
  86. 2 basic types of neurons
    • excitatory cells
    • inhibitory interneurons
  87. structure responsible for relaying sensation, spatial sense and motor signals to the cerebral cortex, along with the regulation of consciousness, sleep and alertness
  88. consists primarily of the myelinated axons of neurons, along with oligodendrocytes and other supporting cells

    damage to its tracts or bundles can cause complex cognitive disorders
    white matter
  89. cells that produce myelin
  90. large band of white matter located in the midline of the brain that allows integration of cortical activity between the two hemispheres
    usually between mirror-image counterparts of each hemisphere
    corpus callosum
  91. complex network of brain regions, consists of structures located in the core of the cerebrum; including the cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, and the hippocampus
    structures are intimately connected with the hypothalamus
    limbic system
  92. term used to describe a theoretical brain size that distinguishes humans and bipedal Homo species from other apes
    cerebral rubicon
  93. method of studying the brain that is limited to anatomy, but can be done on both humans and nonhuman animals
    post-morten studies
  94. method of studying the brain that allows us to learn its physiological mechanisms, but is only conducted on non-human animals
    in-vivo studies
  95. used to generate a 3-D image of the inside of an object from a large series of 2-D X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation
    digital geometry processing
  96. structural brain imaging technique that provides anatomical images of gray matter, white matter, and CSF

    works by measuring water in different types of tissue

    provides high-res images, but is limited to relaxed individuals
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  97. brain imaging technique that examines brain activity during task performance, measuring blood flow and oxygen use

    gives adequate resolution of space and time, but is limited to humans
    functional MRI
  98. structural brain imaging technique that measures the diffusion of water along axons and gives information about how the brain is connected

    non-invasive, variation of MRI
    diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)
  99. an arching bundle of association fibers through the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes

    connects Broca's and Wernicke's areas
    Arcuate Fasciculus
  100. chemical carriers released at synaptic terminals, sends information from one terminal to the other
  101. meninges layers (3)
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid mater
    • pia mater
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