Second Quarter Biology

  1. Auto-
  2. Troph-
  3. Hetero-
  4. Chemo-
  5. Chloro
  6. Plast/plasm-
  7. Photo-
  8. ATP
    Formed from ADP and a phosphate group bonded together
  9. Autotroph
    Organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals to produce it owns food (producer)
  10. Heterotroph
    Organism that obtains energy from the food it consumes (consumer)
  11. Chlorophyll
    Captures light energy; pigment of plants
  12. Chloroplast
    Organelle that captures the energy from sunlight and coverts it into chemical energy
  13. Photosynthesis
    Process by which plants use light to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and sugars
  14. NADP+
    Carrier molecules that transfer high energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules
  15. Stomata
    pore-like openings in the underside of the leaf that allows carbon dioxide and oxygen to diffuse
  16. Thylakoid
    saclike photosynthetic membrane found in chloroplasts
  17. Granum
    stacks of thylakoids
  18. Stroma
    Region outside thylakoid membranes
  19. Light dependent reactions (LDR)
    a reaction that requires light
  20. Light independent reactions (LIR)
    A reaction that can occur in light or dark (does not require light)
  21. Calvin cycle
    Reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high energy compounds such as sugar
  22. Electron transport chain
    Series of proteins in which the high energy electrons from the krebs cycle are used to convert ADP into ATP
  23. Cellular respiration
    Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other good in presence of oxygen
  24. Anaerobic
    Process that does not require oxygen
  25. Aerobic
    Process that requires oxygen
  26. Glycolysis
    First step in releasing the energy of glucose, where it is broken down into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid
  27. Fermentation
    process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
  28. Krebs cycle
    Second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into CO2
  29. Pyruvic Acid
    3-carbon compound, made in the glycolysis process
  30. Lactic acid
    Created from pyruvic acid and NADH during lactic acid fermentation
  31. Transformation
    Process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria
  32. Oswald Avery
    repeated Griffith's experiment, and discovered that the nucleic acid DNA stores and transmits the genetic information from one generation to the next
  33. DNA
    makes p genes, a long molecule made up of nucleotides (Deoxyribose nucleic acid)
  34. Hershey-chase experiment-
  35. Nucleotides
    Monomer of nucleic acids made up of 5 carbon sugars, nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
  36. Base pairing
    Principle that bonds in DNA can only form between G&C and A&T
  37. Transcription
    Process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA
  38. Translation
    Decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
  39. Gene
    Sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
  40. Codon
    3-nucleotide sequence on mRNA that codes for a single amino acid
  41. Anticodon
    Group of 3 bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
  42. m(messenger)RNA
    RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
  43. r(ribosomal)RNA
    type of RNA tat makes up the major part of ribosomes
  44. t(transfer)RNA
    type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
  45. RNA polymerase
    Enzymes similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription
  46. DNA polymerase
    enzyme that "profreads" new DNA strands, helping to ensure that each molecule is a nearly perfect copy of the original DNA
  47. Promoter sequence
    Region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA
  48. Terminator sequence
    Region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme to stope making RNA
  49. Start codon
    AUG, located where RNA polymerase binds to DNA replications fork
  50. Stop codon
    UGA, UAA, UAG: do not code for any amino acid, signify the end of a polypeptide
  51. Gene mutation
    A type of mutation that produces changes in a single gene
  52. Point mutation
    Gene mutations involving changes in one or a few nucleotides
  53. Frameshift mutation
    Mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting of deleting a nucleotide
  54. Mutation
    A change in genetic material
  55. Chromosomal mutation
    Involve changes in the # or structure of chromosomes
  56. Deletion
    Involve the loss of all or part of a chromosome
  57. Duplication
    Produce extra copies of parts of a chromosome
  58. Inversion
    Reverse the direction of parts of chromosome
  59. Translocation
    Part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another
  60. Cell division
    Process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
  61. Mitosis
    Part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
  62. Cytokinesis
    Division of the cytoplasm during cell division
  63. Cancer cells
    Cells that do not have the mechanism to stop reproduction: no interphase or growing phase
  64. Surface area:volume ratio
  65. Pro-
  66. Meta-
  67. Ana-
  68. Telo-
  69. Inter-
  70. Chromatid
    One of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome
  71. Centromere
    Area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
  72. Centriole
    One of two tiny structure located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope
  73. Spindle
    Fanlike microtubule structures that help separate the chromosomes during mitosis
  74. Prophase
    1st and longest phase of mitosis, where chromosome become visible, centrioles separate and take up positions of either side of the nucleus
  75. Metaphase
    2nd phase of mitosis, chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
  76. Anaphase
    3rd phase of mitosis, chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
  77. Telaphase
    4th and final phase of mitosis, chromosomes begin to disperse into tangle of dense material
  78. Cytokinesis
    Division of the cytoplasm during cell division
  79. Interphase
    Period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
  80. Cell cycle
    Series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
  81. Binary fission
    Type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells
  82. Cyclins
    One of a family of closely related proteins that regulate the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
  83. Meiosis
    Process by which the # of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
  84. Diploid
    A cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
  85. Haploid
    A cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes (single set of genes)
  86. Tetrad
    Structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis
  87. Crossing over
    Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
  88. Homologous chromosomes
    Chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
  89. Synapsis
    when identical chromosomes pair with each other in prophase 1
  90. Autosomes
    Autosomal chromosomes (not a sex chromosome)
  91. Gamete
    Specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction
  92. Fertilization
    Process in sexual reproduction in which male&female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
  93. Polar bodies
    3 cells produced by females during meiosis; do not participate in reproduction
  94. Gregor Mendel
    Scientist who made predictions and principles of genetics
  95. Genetics
    Scientific study of heredity
  96. Gene
    Sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
  97. Allele
    One of a different form of a gene
  98. Trait
    A specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another
  99. Genotype
    Genetic makeup of an organism
  100. Phenotype
    Physical characteristics of an organism
  101. Homozygous
    Term used to refer to an organism that has two identical alleles for a particular trait
  102. Heterozygous
    Term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait
  103. Punnet square
    Diagram showing the gene combination that might result from a genetic cross
  104. Segregation
    Separation of allele during gamete formation
  105. Independent Assortment
    Independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes
  106. Codominance
    Situation in which both alleles of a gene
  107. Multiple alleles
    Three or more alleles of the same gene
  108. Polygenic traits
    Trait controlled by two or more genes
  109. Gene map
    Diagram showing the relative locations of each known gene on a particular chromosome
  110. Sex chromosome
    One of two chromosome that determine an individual's sex
  111. Karyotype
    Set of photographs of chromosomes grouped in order in pairs
  112. Pedigree
    Chart that shows the relationships within a family
  113. Sex-linked gene
    Gene located on the X or Y chromosome
  114. Nondisjunction
    Error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate
  115. Carrier
    Can be a molecule that transfers material from one place to another
Card Set
Second Quarter Biology